Card Set Information
Biological variation: How do people differ?
biological variation: How are people the same?
they all have
ability to learn
social groups - have kinship networks (consanguineous relationships (blood) or affinal relationships (marriage) or fictive relationship ?????)
learn much of their social group behavior
huge brains - encephalized
we can all learn each other's language
share 98.6 % of our DNA with chimps
share 99.7% of our DNA with neanderthals (doesn't take much genetic material to change)
What is evolution?
the cumulative changes in the average genetic characteristics of a population generally thought to occur over many generations
12 types of species??? chimp - homo sapien sapien
what changed robusticity in humans?
understand humans evolutionary story - from scientific perspective
What is anthropology as a discipline?
the study of human beings
focuses on a holistic approach (whole perspective instead of one ie. kinshipp, class, ideology, behavior etc.)
comparative study (cross cultural comparison compares similarities, differences, and complexities of cultures)
interdisciplinary - involves other academic disciplines
what is culture?
the ways of doing and acting that are passed down through generations and NOT by genetics via a learned behavior
4 branches (subdisciplines) of Anthropology
study of language
studies material remains of dead people to analyze past human populations through artifacts, architecture, ecofacts and landscapes.
scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral characteristics of human beings; our closest relatives, the non human primates; and their ancestors
Branches of physical/biological anthropology
study of early human ancestors
focus on fossils
use skeletal information and empirical observation to reconstruct lifeways
figures out what life was like to determine what is human about them
can reconstruct the face using the crania
study of human body measurements
conduct comparative study
document physical, variation, size of cranium & cranial capacity
focuses on modern people
looks for DNA comparisons and genetic differences and distances of people
almost all our genes are the same, but they look for minute differences that give us an idea how long ago people split from one another.
study of non human primates
how primate behaviors are similar to ours
focus on relatedness amongst members of primata
study of the skeleton
important for interpreting fossils (explain stature)
understand mechanics & nutrition
study of skeletal disease and trauma
skeletons over the course of history can show violence, lack of nutrition etc.
application of anthropological techniques to legal political, and special interest issues
can break things down and identify race, stature, gender, time of death
german nazi responsible for death of 400,000 jewish and minority groups
never caught by nazi hunters, but was closely related to another person's identity through the use of forensic anthropology comparing, gender, stature, and wound
a process of understanding things through observation, generalization and verification
relies on experiment and empirical data (where verification comes from)
knowable and observable data
set of assumptions derived from observation that has been tested and accepted as more accurate from competing explanations
can have more than one theory operating at the same time
tentative assumptions or premise that accounts for relationships between expirical observations
whats the nature of scientific inquiry
cyclical process of scientific method
observe, test, experiment
evaluate outcomes & hypothesis
diagram of scientific method
theories supported by testing hypothesis:
: hypothesis before the facts. formulate hypothesis first and then test with new observations
: collect data first
: a simplified representation of relaity that is devided for the purpose of testing hypothesis (conceptual framework for explaining things)
: interplay between theory and observation
example: theory and hypothesis
theory: the physical makeup of human beings is partially the result of local ecology (where you live)
hypothesis: people in tropical climates will have physical features that make heat dissipation efficient
difference between natural selection and culture
the human experience
need to understand variation, diversity and how it related to culture
this helps to avoid ethnocentrism