Work Psychology Chapter 1

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Elli
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307814
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Work Psychology Chapter 1
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2015-09-14 15:28:10
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OB
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Organisational Behavior
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  1. organization
    a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet agreed-upon objectives or goals
  2. organizational behavior
    a field that seeks to understand individual, group, and organizational processes in the workplace
  3. behavioral sciences
    fields e.g. psychology and sociology that seek knowledge of human behavior and society through use of scientific method
  4. Theory X
    traditional philosophy of management that suggested that most people are lazy and irresponsible, and will work hard only when forced to do so
  5. Theory Y
    a philosophy of management suggesting that under the right circumstances, people are fully capable of working productively and accepting responsibility fortheir work.
  6. open systems
    self-sustaining systems that transform input from the external environment into output, which the system then returns to the environment
  7. contingency approach
    a perspective suggesting that organizational behavior is affected by a large number of interacting factors thus how someone will behave is said to be contingent on many variables at once
  8. Hawthorne effect
    the tendency for people being studied to behave differently than they ordinarily would
  9. time-and-motion study
    a type of applied research designed to classify and streamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs with the intent of finding "the one best way" to perform them
  10. scientific management
    an early approach to management and organizational behavior emphasizing the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible
  11. human relations movement
    a perspective on organizational behavior that rejects the primarily economic orientation of scientific management and recognizes, instead, the importance of social processes in work settings
  12. Hawthorne studies
    earliest systematic research in the field of OB, was done to determine how the design of work environment affected performance
  13. classical organizational theory
    an early approach to the study of management that focused on t he most efficient way of structuring organizations
  14. division of labor
    the practice of dividing work into specialized tasks that enable people to specialize in what they do best
  15. bureaucracy
    an organizational design developed by Max Weber that attempts to make organizations operate efficiently by having a clear hierarchy of authority in which people are required to perform well-defined jobs
  16. globalization
    the process of interconnecting the world's people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental aspects of their lives
  17. multinational enterprises (MNEs)
    organizations that have significant operations spread throughout various nations but are headquartered in a single nation
  18. expatriates (expats)
    people who are citizens of one country, but who live and work in another country
  19. culture
    the set of values, customs, and beliefs that people have in common with other members of a social unit (e.g., a nation)
  20. culture shock
    the tendency for people to become confused and disoriented as they attempt to adjust to a new culture
  21. repatriation
    the process of readjusting to one's own culture after spending time away from it
  22. convergence hypothesis
    a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations
  23. divergence hypothesis
    the approach to the study of management which recognizes that knowing how to manage most effectively requires clear understanding of the culture in which people work
  24. child-care facilities
    sites at or near company locations where parents can leave their children while they are working
  25. elder-care facilities
    facilities at which employees at work can leave elderly relatives for whom they are responsible (such as parents and grandparents)
  26. personal support policies
    widely varied practices that help employees meet the demands of their family lives, freeing them to concentrate on their work
  27. baby boom generation
    the generation of children born in the economic boom period following World War II
  28. informate
    the process by which workers manipulate objects by "inserting data" between themselves and those objects
  29. downsizing/ rightsizing
    the process of adjusting the number of employees needed to work in newly designed organizations
  30. outsourcing
    the process of eliminating those parts of organizations that focus on non-core sectors of the business (i .e., tasks that are peripheral to the organization), and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead
  31. core competency
    an organization's key capability, what it does best
  32. virtual organization
    a highly flexible, temporary organization formed by a group of companies that join forces to exploit a specific opportunity
  33. telecommuting (teleworking)
    the practice of using communications technology to perform work from remote locations, such as one's home
  34. engagement
    a mutual commitment between employers and employees to do things to help one another achieve each other's goals and aspirations
  35. compressed work week
    the practice of working fewer days each week, but longer hours each day (e.g., four 10-hour days
  36. flextime programs
    policies that give employees some discretion over when they can arrive at and leave work, thereby making it easier to adapt their work schedules to the demands of their personal lives
  37. contingent workforce
    people hired by organizations temporarily, to work as needed for finite periods of time
  38. idiosyncratic work arrangements (i-deals)
    uniquely customized agreements negotiated between individual employees and their employers with respect to employment terms benefiting each party
  39. job sharing
    a form of regular part-time work in which two or more employees assume the duties of a single job, splitting its responsibilities, salary, and benefits in proportion to the time worked
  40. voluntary reduced work time (V-time) programs
    programs that allow employees to reduce the amount of time they work by a certain amount (typically 10 or 20 percent), with a proportional reduction in pay

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