Chapter 1 Ecosystems

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ConnorC
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307822
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Chapter 1 Ecosystems
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2015-09-21 17:08:24
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Science Chapter Ecosystems words
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  1. Ecosystem
    • All the interacting parts of a biological community and that communities environment
    • All ecosystems can be divided up into 2 categories; abiotic (never living things) and biotic (living or formerly living things)
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    • An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
    • All organisms require sustainable ecosystems to survive
    • Many depend on more than one ecosystem to survive
    • E.g. birds that migrate in the winter depend on multiple ecosystems
  3. Biotic
    • Living things or formerly living things
    • Plants: Producers
    • Animals
    • Microorganisms   Consumers
    • Fungi
    • Also includes all the interactions among living things in the ecosystem
    • Symbiosis- Interactions between members of 2 different species that live in close association i.e mushrooms and trees
    • Mutualisim-Symbiosis in which both animals benefit
    • Parasitism- Symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
    • Predation- One organism consumes the other
    • Competition- 2 or more organisms compete for the same resources such as food, space, or water
  4. Abiotic
    • The non living parts of an ecosystem
    • Water
    • Air (oxygen)
    • Light
    • Chemical Nutrients
    • Soil
  5. Lithosphere
    The hard part of the Earths surface; includes rocks and soil

    • Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • Matter is constantly being recycled, but no matter is lost as it moves along the 4 spheres
  6. Hydrosphere
    The liquid part of Earths surface; includes salt water oceans, fresh water lakes and rivers

    • Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • Matter is constantly being recycled, but no matter is lost as it moves along the 4 spheres
  7. Atmosphere
    The layer of gases above Earths surface; includes air

    • Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • Matter is constantly being recycled, but no matter is lost as it moves along the 4 spheres
  8. Biosphere
    The living part of Earths surface; not separate from Earths other spheres, includes life in soil, water, and air

    • Ecological processes result in matter moving among the spheres
    • Matter is constantly being recycled, but no matter is lost as it moves along the 4 spheres
  9. Nutrients
    • Nutrients are chemicals that are needed by living organisms to survive
    • Nutrients are cycled through the Earth's spheres
  10. Eutrophication
    • Eutrophication is the process in which nitrogen or phosphorous is added to an ecosystem
    • It can push it beyond the natural ecosystem resulting in destroying the natural balance
  11. Photosynthesis
    • The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, to be used as food
    • Carbon dioxide + water (in the presence of light with chlorophyll)-->glucose and oxygen
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O-->C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • Can be done b plants, algae, and some bacteria
    • Chlorophyll needed
    • Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are bonded together to make sugar (glucose)
    • CO2 enters through the pores in the leaves and H2O enters plant roots
    • O2 is added to the atmosphere for use in cellular respiration by all organisms
  12. Trophic Levels
    • Categories of organisms defined by how the organisms gains energy
    • Primary producers: make their own food
    • Consumers: cannot make their own food; must consume other organisms to gain energy
    • Food chains can be used to show trophic levels in ecosystems
  13. Biomass
    • The total mass of living organisms in a defined area or a group
    • Biomass decreases from one trophic level to the next because: Not all the food is eaten, not everything is digested (waste), energy is lost as heat
    • This loss in energy is why there is less carnivores than herbivores and less herbivores than plants
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next highest trophic level
    • The percentage is always less than 100% because organisms use most of the energy for life functions (~10% passed on)
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they're eliminated
    • Bio accumulation of toxins from human-made pollution, can be destructive to a species (e.g. DDT, PCB)
  16. Biomagnification
    • Bio magnification  is the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next
    • Bio magnification happens because each trophic level needs more food than the last so if say the plant has pesticides on it than the cricket that eats it will have more pesticide in it and so on
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • A process that releases energy from organic molecules in the presence of oxygen
    • Carbs mostly
    • Used by most living organisms
    • Essential to life
    • Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
  18. Fermentation
    • A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
    • Not all the energy can be extracted so it is turned into methane gas
  19. Greenhouse gases
    • Include water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane, which trap energy from the sun that would otherwise escape
    • These gases provide a natural insulating effect that results in the Earth having a temperature capable of supporting life
  20. Greenhouse effect
    • Burning fossil fuels result in an enhanced greenhouse effect
    • When we burn fossil fuels we release a large amount of energy resulting in an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide
    • This increase in carbon dioxide traps more of the suns energy than needed, creating the greenhouse effect
  21. Acid precipitation
    • Fossil fuels release nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide
    • These gases combine with water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid
    • These acids lower the normal pH of precipitation and eventually descends as acid precipitation in the form of rain sleet, or snow
    • Acid precipitation causes loss of nutrients from the soil
    • Lowers the pH of aquatic environments, causing problems for fish, amphibians, and invertebrates
    • Can kill organisms directly or by removing food species from the ecosystems

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