CLP 4433 TEST NO.1

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CLP 4433 TEST NO.1
2015-09-14 17:48:19
psychtesting psychmeasures

Cards for CLP 4433 Test No.1: chapters 1,3,4,5,11
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  1. psychological test
    measurement instrument that attempts to measure personal attributes in understanding/describing human behavior
  2. Three characteristics of Psychological Tests
    • 1. sample of behavior
    • 2. obtained under standardized conditions
    • 3. established rules for scoring
  3. Types of psychological tests
    performance, behavioral observations, self-reports
  4. Scoring Rules
    describe subject behavior in response to test in quantitative/numerical terms
  5. Objective Scoring
    2 people with the same set of scoring rules applied will arrive at the same score
  6. Subjective Scoring
    relies on examiner judgement
  7. Types of Decisions - Individual Decisions

    benefits and societal concerns
    test results influence individual's actions

    • benefit - feedback, guides for decision making
    • concerns - testing can have undue impact
  8. Types of Decisions - Institutional Decisions

    benefits and concerns
    results used by organizations for placement purposes

    • benefits - can be used for employment
    • concerns - accuracy and fairness questionable
  9. Types of Decisions - Comparative
    selection of individuals from a group of test takers

    ex. employment test
  10. Types of Decisions - Absolute
    based on single person on test based on demonstration of mastery

    ex. promotion testing
  11. What are the THREE PRIMARY ISSUES of testing?
    • 1. impact of ability testing
    • 2. fair use of tests and outcomes
    • 3. invasion of privacy and confidentiality
  12. Bias
    difference in scores that aren't attributed to the construct
  13. Impact
    group mean difference after removal of potential bias

    reflect REAL differences on the construct
  14. Tests are most likely to be called "unfair" when:
    • 1. there are obstacles for some groups (ex. gender, physically/mentally impaired)
    • 2. they are the SOLE basis for decisions
    • 3. poor performance = harsh consequences
  15. Ways to make tests more "fair":
    multiple assessment procedures, hurdle system, compensatory system
  16. Ways to make tests more "fair": Hurdle System
    multi-stage decision model with more intensive screening for some groups
  17. Ways to make tests more "fair": Compensatory System
    low performance in one area can be made up for by high performance in another
  18. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    requires "reasonable accommodation" when testing/employing disabled individuals
  19. What is a STAKEHOLDER and who are the two most common stakeholders?
    individuals directly affected by decisions of tests

    most common: test-takers, test-developers
  20. Concerns of Test-developers
    fairness from institutional perspective

    comparative decisions

    success of test and long-term results
  21. Concerns of Test-Takers
    personal consequences

    absolute decisions

    cost-effectiveness and short-term results
  22. What are the 4 Levels of Measurement?
    Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
  23. Nominal Measurement
    numbers or labels to identify objects, persons, groups

    ex. football player jersey numbers
  24. Ordinal Measurement
    rank order - order of numbers correspond to order of objects (not mathematically manipulated)

    ex. school percentiles
  25. Interval Measurement
    uses equal units for differences in which objects are ordered

    ex. temperature
  26. Ratio Measurement
    meaningful differences using an absolute zero

    can be mathematically manipulated

    ex. money
  27. Central Tendency
    a statistical measure to determine a single score that defines the center of distribution
  28. Mode
    the most frequently occurring value in a data set (can be more than one)
  29. Symmetric vs. Skewed Distributions
    symmetric - mirror images

    skewed - asymmetrical; median used for measure of central tendency
  30. Deviation Score
    deviation score = mean - each person's score
  31. Variability:
    what determines it?
    types of measures
    the extent to which scores in a distribution differ from one another

    determined by the amount that values differ from the mean

    types of measures: range, variance, standard deviation
  32. Variability - Variance
    indicates how far individual values are from the expected value (mean)

    average of the SQUARED deviation scores
  33. Large vs. Small Variance
    Large - individuals differ in score and from each other

    Small - individuals are similar
  34. Steps in Computing Variance
    • 1. COMPUTE¬†the MEAN
    • 2. SUBTRACT the mean from every observed value
    • 3. SQUARE the values and SUM them
    • 4. DIVIDE the sum by the NUMBER OF VALUES
  35. Standard Deviation
    square root of the variance
  36. Covariance
    the extent to which two variables are systematically related, quantitative estimates