A&P1 - Test 3
Card Set Information
A&P1 - Test 3
A&P1 - Test 3
Muscles can only do this ?, never this?
PULL, never push!
What one muscle group does, another ?
Three classes of levers (for muscle use) are dependent upon three things, name them
fulcrum (pivot point - example
If the effort farther than load from fulcrum, then
mechanical advantage (less effort)
If the effort is nearer than load to fulcrum, then?
lever operates at mechanical disadvantage
third-class lever (tweezers - sort of...)
Attachment site to the stationary bone
Attachment site to the movable bone
A group action that causes the movement?
Prime movers (agonists)
A group action that relaxes and yields to the movement?
A group action that steadies the movement?
A group action that stabilizes the origin of the prime mover?
Name nervous system's functions
Name the two divisions of the nervous system
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What parts of the body belong to the central nervous system
What parts of the body belong to the peripheral nervous system?
Name the two functional divisions of the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Name the two divisions of the Motor (efferent) division of the PNS
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
fight of flight (speed up)
rest and digest (slow down)
Moves impulse Away from sensory receptor toward CNS
Moves impulse from CNS toward the muscle to Excite it
Efferent (Excite muscle)
Name the two principal cell types of nervous tissue
small cells that surround and wrap delicate neurons
Neuroglia (the pit crew)
excitable cells that transmit electrical signals
Neurons (the race car drivers)
Name the 6 types of Neuroglia
This is the most abundant type of neuroglia that supports and braces neurons, guides migration of young neurons, and responds to nerve impulses
This type of neuroglia forms the insulating myelin sheaths
This type of neuroglia surrounds all peripheral nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths in thicker nerve fibers
This is the structural units of the nervous system, highly specialized cells that conduct impulses with extreme longevity (last 100+ years)
What establishes the resting potential of a neuron?
How is the inside of a neuron charged?
What is the charge inside the neuron?
ATP moves potassium into the neuron and keeps what outside?
During the _____ phase, the threshold is crossed, and the membrane potential increases
During the _____ phase, voltage-gated Na+ channels become inactivated; voltage-gated K+ channels open, and K+ flows out of the cell
During the ______, or refractory period, the voltage-gated K+ channels close and resting potential is restored.
Name the two categories of Postsynaptic potentials:
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's)
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP's)
This is a common neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates, involved in muscle stimulation, memory formation, and learning
The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter that is an amino acid
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Name the biogenic amines that are active in the CNS and PNS
The brain and spinal cord contain
This type of matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
This type of matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons
The part of the hindbrain responsible for respiration, sleep, swallowing, etc.
The part of the hindbrain responsible for motor function
Name the 3 parts of the hindbrain
The part of the brain responsible for vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal, and temperature regulation?
The part of the brain containing the Diencephalon and Telencephalon
The forebrain makes up the __________ of the brain
The telencephalon (cerebrum) consists of 4 lobes, name them
Generation and experience of emotions involve many brain structures including...
Motivation, olfaction, behavior, and memory are part of what structure?
The most important structure to the storage of emotion in the memory is the ?
The largest structure in the brain, essential for awareness, language, cognition, memory, and consciousness?
Area of the frontal lobe that is active when speech is generated?
Area of the temporal lobe that is active when speech is heard?
receptors that provide information about touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and the position of limbs
This lobe of the brain has substantial effect on executive functions
the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth
Short-term memory is accessed via the
Long-term memory is stored where?
patients have a persistent lack of interest or pleasure in most activities
major depressive disorder
characterized by manic (high-mood) and depressive (low-mood) phases
The disease is caused by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in the brain
a motor disorder caused by death of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain