A&P1 - Test 3

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cbennett
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307882
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A&P1 - Test 3
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2015-09-21 23:23:10
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A&P1 - Test 3
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  1. Muscles can only do this ?, never this?
    PULL, never push!
  2. What one muscle group does, another ?
    undoes
  3. Three classes of levers (for muscle use) are dependent upon three things, name them
    • load
    • effort
    • fulcrum (pivot point - example: elbow)
  4. If the effort farther than load from fulcrum, then
    mechanical advantage (less effort)
  5. If the effort is nearer than load to fulcrum, then?
    lever operates at mechanical disadvantage
  6. first-class lever
  7. first-class lever
  8. second-class lever
  9. second-class lever
  10. third-class lever (tweezers - sort of...)
  11. third-class lever
  12. Attachment site to the stationary bone
    Origin
  13. Attachment site to the movable bone
    Insertion
  14. A group action that causes the movement?
    Prime movers (agonists)
  15. A group action that relaxes and yields to the movement?
    Antagonists
  16. A group action that steadies the movement?
    Synergists
  17. A group action that stabilizes the origin of the prime mover?
    Fixators
  18. Name nervous system's functions
    • sensory input
    • integration
    • motor output
  19. Name the two divisions of the nervous system
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  20. What parts of the body belong to the central nervous system
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  21. What parts of the body belong to the peripheral nervous system?
    • spinal nerves
    • cranial nerves
  22. Name the two functional divisions of the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • Sensory (Afferent)
    • Motor (Efferent)
  23. Name the two divisions of the Motor (efferent) division of the PNS
    • Somatic nervous system
    • Autonomic nervous system
  24. somatic means
    voluntary
  25. autonomic means
    involuntary
  26. fight of flight (speed up)
    sympathetic
  27. rest and digest (slow down)
    parasympathetic
  28. Moves impulse Away from sensory receptor toward CNS
    Afferent (AWAY)
  29. Moves impulse from CNS toward the muscle to Excite it
    Efferent (Excite muscle)
  30. Name the two principal cell types of nervous tissue
    • Neuroglia
    • Neurons
  31. small cells that surround and wrap delicate neurons
    Neuroglia (the pit crew)
  32. excitable cells that transmit electrical signals
    Neurons (the race car drivers)
  33. Name the 6 types of Neuroglia
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglial cells
    • Ependymal cells
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Satellite cells
    • Schwann cells
  34. This is the most abundant type of neuroglia that supports and braces neurons, guides migration of young neurons, and responds to nerve impulses
    Astrocytes
  35. This type of neuroglia forms the insulating myelin sheaths
    Oligodendrocytes
  36. This type of neuroglia surrounds all peripheral nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths in thicker nerve fibers
    Schwann Cells
  37. This is the structural units of the nervous system, highly specialized cells that conduct impulses with extreme longevity (last 100+ years)
    Neurons
  38. What establishes the resting potential of a neuron?
    • Ion pumps
    • Ion channels
  39. How is the inside of a neuron charged?
    Negatively
  40. What is the charge inside the neuron?
    ~-70mV
  41. ATP moves potassium into the neuron and keeps what outside?
    sodium
  42. During the _____ phase, the threshold is crossed, and the membrane potential increases
    rising phase
  43. During the _____ phase, voltage-gated Na+ channels become inactivated; voltage-gated K+ channels open, and K+ flows out of the cell
    falling phase
  44. During the ______, or refractory period, the voltage-gated K+ channels close and resting potential is restored.
    undershoot
  45. Name the two categories of Postsynaptic potentials:
    • Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's)
    • Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP's)
  46. This is a common neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates, involved in muscle stimulation, memory formation, and learning
    Acetylcholine
  47. The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter that is an amino acid
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  48. Name the biogenic amines that are active in the CNS and PNS
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
    • serotonin
  49. The brain and spinal cord contain
    • gray matter
    • white matter
  50. This type of matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
    Gray matter
  51. This type of matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons
    White matter
  52. The part of the hindbrain responsible for respiration, sleep, swallowing, etc.
    Pons
  53. The part of the hindbrain responsible for motor function
    Medulla Oblongata
  54. Name the 3 parts of the hindbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
    • Cerebellum
  55. The part of the brain responsible for vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal, and temperature regulation?
    Midbrain
  56. The part of the brain containing the Diencephalon and Telencephalon
    Forebrain
  57. The forebrain makes up the __________ of the brain
    Vast majority
  58. The telencephalon (cerebrum) consists of 4 lobes, name them
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
  59. Generation and experience of emotions involve many brain structures including...
    • amygdala
    • hippocampus
    • thalamus
  60. Motivation, olfaction, behavior, and memory are part of what structure?
    Limbic system
  61. The most important structure to the storage of emotion in the memory is the ?
    amygdala
  62. The largest structure in the brain, essential for awareness, language, cognition, memory, and consciousness?
    Cerebral cortex
  63. Area of the frontal lobe that is active when speech is generated?
    Broca's area
  64. Area of the temporal lobe that is active when speech is heard?
    Wernicke's area
  65. receptors that provide information about touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and the position of limbs
    somatosensory
  66. This lobe of the brain has substantial effect on executive functions
    Frontal Lobe
  67. the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth
    Neural plasticity
  68. Short-term memory is accessed via the
    Hippocampus
  69. Long-term memory is stored where?
    Cerebral cortex
  70. patients have a persistent lack of interest or pleasure in most activities
    major depressive disorder
  71. characterized by manic (high-mood) and depressive (low-mood) phases
    bipolar disorder
  72. The disease is caused by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in the brain
    Alzheimer's Disease
  73. a motor disorder caused by death of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain
    Parkinson's Disease

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