Neuro- Functional NS cont...

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Mawad
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307884
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Neuro- Functional NS cont...
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2015-09-15 20:30:30
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vetmed neuroanatomy
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  1. Define convergence.
    many fibers synapse on lower motor cell
  2. Define summation.
    addition of excitatory and inhibitory impulses in lower motor cell
  3. Where are the cell bodies of spinal neurons located?
    ventral grey column
  4. What are the 2 types of fibers innervated by GSE neurons and what are their targets?
    GSE neurons to extrafusal fibers to voluntary skeletal mm.; GSE neurons to intrafusal fibers to modified skeletal muscles that form muscle spindles
  5. Extrafusal fibers are innervated by __________.
    GSE alpha motor neurons
  6. Intrafusal fibers are innervated by __________.
    GSE gamma motor neurons
  7. What is a special feature of intrafusal fibers?
    stretch receptors
  8. What are the 3 functional classification groups based on target structure?
    GSE, SVE, GVE
  9. GSE in the head innervates...
    voluntary skeletal muscles of head and face
  10. SVE innervates...
    skeletal muscle of branchial arch origin (aka pharyngeal arches)
  11. GVE innervates...
    cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, glands
  12. LMN disease caused by toxins will affect the ________.
    neuromuscular junction
  13. LMN disease caused by inflammation or trauma can affect the... (3)
    peripheral n., spinal nerve proper, ventral root
  14. LMN disease caused by fracture can affect the... (2)
    spinal nerve proper, ventral root
  15. LMN disease caused by pressure can affect the ________.
    cell body
  16. LMN disease caused by neoplasia can affect the... (2)
    spinal nerve proper, ventral root
  17. The spinal nerve proper is at the level of the _________.
    intervertebral foramen
  18. With LMN disease, the _________ and __________ are often affected together because of proximity.
    spinal nerve proper; ventral root
  19. What are clinical signs of LMN disease?
    hyporeflexia, hypotonia, flaccid paralysis, muscle atrophy quickly
  20. Describe how neurobiotaxis and columnar fragmentation produce cranial nerve nuclei.
    instead of continuous columns of cells (as in the cord), there are pockets/fragments; the cells want to be close to their target innervation so they move to different parts of the brain
  21. What CN are associated with GSE nuclei in the brain?
    CN III, IV, VI, XII
  22. CN III, the _________ n., is associated with the _______; its nucleus is located at the _________; its target is the __________.
    oculomotor; GSE and GVE; rostral colliculus; extraocular mm.
  23. CN IV, the ___________, is associated with the _______; its nucleus is located at the __________; its target is the __________.
    trochlear n.; GSE; caudal colliculus; extraocular mm.
  24. CN VI, the __________, is associated with the _________; its nucleus is located at the __________; its target is the __________.
    abducens n.; GSE; caudal cerebellar peduncle; extraocular mm.
  25. Cn XII, the __________ n., is associated with the _________; its nucleus is located at the __________; its target is the ___________.
    hypoglossal n.; GSE; obex; lingual mm.
  26. What are general signs associated with lesions to nuclei of CN III, IV, VI?
    {extraocular mm} strabismus- drifting/deviation of the eye; displaced pupil
  27. What are general signs associated with lesions to nuclei of CN XII?
    {lingual mm} atrophy of tongue ipsilateral to lesion
  28. CN I, the _________ n., is ________.
    olfactory n.; sensory
  29. CN II, the _________ n., is ________.
    optic; sensory
  30. CN III, the _________ n., is ________.
    oculomotor; motor
  31. CN IV, the _________ n., is ________.
    trochlear; motor
  32. CN V, the _________ n., is ________.
    trigeminal; both motor and sensory
  33. CN VI, the _________ n., is ________.
    abducens; motor
  34. CN VII, the _________ n., is ________.
    facial; both motor and sensory
  35. CN VIII, the _________ n., is ________.
    vestibulocochlear; sensory
  36. CN IX, the _________ n., is ________.
    glossopharyngeal; both motor and sensory
  37. CN X, the _________ n., is ________.
    vagus; both motor and sensory
  38. CN XI, the _________ n., is ________.
    accessory; motor
  39. CN XII, the _________ n., is ________.
    hypoglossal; motor
  40. What are the 3 motor columns of the brainstem, and how are they positioned with respect to one another?
    GSE nuclei at the midline, SVE most lateral, GVE in b/w them
  41. What CN are associated with SVE nuclei in the brainstem?
    CN V, VII, IX, X, XI
  42. CN V, the __________ n., is associated with the _________; its nucleus is located at the __________; its target is the ___________.
    trigeminal n.; SVE; rostral cerebellar peduncle;  muscles of mastication
  43. CN VII, the __________ n., is associated with the _________; its nucleus is located __________; its target is the ___________.
    facial n.; SVE and GVE; half way b/w olive and trapezoid body; muscles of facial expression
  44. CN IX, X, XI, the __________ nn., are associated with the _________; their nucleus, the _________, is located __________; its target is the ___________.
    glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory; SVE; nucleus ambiguus; as a column in the myelencephalon; palate, pharynx, larynx, esophagus
  45. Signs of lesions in the motor nucleus of the trigeminal n.
    inability to close mouth
  46. Signs of lesions in the motor nucleus of the facial n.
    facial paralysis/ droopy
  47. What do tumors often affect both the motor nucleus of the facial n. AND abducens n. (CN VI)?
    fibers from CN VII form an internal genu (curve) around the nucleus of CN VI
  48. Signs of lesions in the nucleus ambiguus in the CN IX and X portion.
    dysphagia; altered bark or cannot vocalize if CN X involvment
  49. What are the components of CN XI (accessory n.), and what do they innervate?
    internal root (blends with vagus fibers) to larynx and esophagus, external root to cervical mm.
  50. Signs of lesions in the nucleus ambiguus in the CN XI portion.
    muscle atrophy of trapezius
  51. All autonomic innervation is built upon a _______ model with a synapse in a _________ prior to reaching the target.
    2 neuron; ganglion
  52. The pre-ganglionic cell body of CN III is ______________.
    Edinger Westphal nucleus- parasympathetic nucleus of CN III
  53. The post-ganglionic cell body (post-synaptic) of CN III is ___________.
    ciliary ganglion
  54. The pre-ganglionic cell bodies of CN VII are __(2)__.
    parasympathetic nucleus of CN VII- rostral salivatory nucleus,lacrimal nucleus
  55. The rostral salivatory nucleus meets its post-synaptic cell body in the ___________.
    mandibular ganglion
  56. The lacrimal nucleus meets its post-synaptic cell body in the __________.
    pterygopalatine ganglion
  57. The pre-ganglionic cell body of CN IX is __________.
    caudal salivatory nucleus
  58. The post-synaptic cell body of CN IX is in __________.
    otic ganglion
  59. The pre-ganglionic call body of CN X is the ___________.
    dorsal vagal nucleus
  60. The post-ganlionic cell body of CN X is ___________.
    terminal ganglia in organ walls
  61. What CN are associated with the GVE pathway?
    III, VII, IX, X
  62. The GVE portion of CN III goes to __________.
    intraocular mm.
  63. The GVE portion of CN VII goes to ___________.
    lacrimal and salivary glands.
  64. The GVE portion of CN IX goes to __________.
    salivary glands
  65. The GVE portion of CN X goes to __________.
    body organs, cardiac mm, and smooth mm.
  66. What is the function of the autonomic NS?
    coordinate internal responses to external stimuli, involuntary reactions/responses, response to stresses
  67. The primary regulatory neurons to the parasympathetic nervous system are in the ___________.
    rostral hypothalamus
  68. The primary regulatory neurons to the sympathetic nervous system are in the _____________.
    caudal hypothalamus
  69. Target structures of the autonomic nervous system. (3)
    cardiac mm., vascular smooth mm., glands
  70. The autonomic nervous system requires ______ neuron(s).
    2
  71. What type of ganglia are present in the autonomic nervous system?
    prevertebral, paravertebral, terminal, named
  72. What types of fibers are present in the autonomic nervous system?
    preganglionic, postganglionic
  73. What is the post-ganglionic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system?
    norepinephrine
  74. What is the post-ganglionic neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system?
    Ach
  75. The GVE LMN of the sympathetic NS are in the __________ of the __________ region.
    lateral grey horn; thoracolumbar
  76. What paravertebral ganglia are part of the sympathetic nervous system?
    sympathetic trunk ganglia, cervical ganglia (cervicothoracic, middle cervical, cranial cervical)
  77. What pre-vertebral ganglia are part of the sympathetic NS?
    celiac, cranial mesenteric, caudal mesenteric, other (adrenal, renal, aortic)
  78. Pre-vertebralg anglia of the sympathetic nervous system wrap around the...
    abdominal blood vessels as they leave the aorta.
  79. Communicating branch b/w the sympathetic outflow and spinal nn.
    ramus communicans
  80. Peripheral innervation to the sweat glands.
    sudomotor
  81. Peripheral innervation to the arrector pili mm.
    pilomotor
  82. Peripheral innervation to the vascular smooth muscle.
    vasomotor
  83. Examples of sympathetic named pre-ganglionic nerves. (3)
    major, minor, lumbar splanchnic nn.
  84. Examples of sympathetic named post-ganglionic nn. (2)
    hypogastric, vertebral nn.
  85. Sympathetic innervation to the head starts in the ___________ of the ___________.
    lateral grey horn; thoracolumbar region
  86. Describe the path of sympathetic innervation as it travels from the spinal cord to the head.
    lateral grey horn preganglionic cell bodies in thoracolumbar region--> ramus communicans--> sympathetic trunk--> cervicothoracic ganglion--> ansa subclavia--> middle cervical ganglion--> vagosympathetic trunk--> cranial cervical ganglion (post-ganglionic cell bodies)--> brain
  87. Describe Horner's syndrome.
    loss of sympathetic innervation to the head; droopy eyelid, miosis, sunken globe
  88. here is the secondary neuron synapse for sympathetic innervation to the head?
    cranial cervical ganglion
  89. Parasympathetic innervation is of ___________ origin, ie. __________ in the brainstem and __________ of the spinal cord.
    craniosacral; nuclei of certain CNs; sacral portion
  90. Pre-ganglionic cell bodies of the sacral parasympathetic NS are in the nuclei of _______________.
    lateral horn area of the sacral spinal cord
  91. Post-ganglionic cell bodies of the sacral parasympathetic NS are in the _______________.
    terminal ganglia or the pelvic ganglion
  92. Where are the pelvic ganglia of the sacral division of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    repro tract, urinary tract, terminal GI tract
  93. What is the function of the vestibular system?
    maintain equilibrium by detecting changes in head position and adjusting the eyes trunk and limbs
  94. What is the focal point of the vestibular system?
    the position of the head- reference point
  95. The vestibular system is part of the _________ system in the form of ____________.
    special somatic afferent (SSA); proprioception
  96. The sensory receptors of the vestibular system are located in the ___________ and ___________ of the ____________ and _____________ respectively. These are located within the ___________.
    cristae ampullares; maculae; uticulus; saccule; inner ear
  97. A crista ampullaris is located in each of the ____________ and detects changes in _____________.
    3 semicircular ducts; angular acceleration of the head
  98. The maculae detect changes in ___________.
    linear acceleration
  99. Changes within the _________ of the vestibular sensory receptors (crista apllularis and macula) are transmitted via the _________, the cell bodies of which are located in the __________ in the ____________.
    hair cells; vestibular n.; vestibular ganglion; petrous temporal bone
  100. The cell bodies of the vestibular n. are ___________ neurons.
    bipolar sensory

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