AnaBon70 - 77

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AnaBon70 - 77
2015-09-16 00:26:27
thoracic anatomy

chest anatomy
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  1. Chest / Thorax
    upper portion of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen
  2. Bony Thorax
    • 12 Thoracic vertebrae
    • 12 pairs of ribs
    • clavicles
    • scapulae
    • sternum ( manubrium, body, xiphoid process )
  3. Mid-thorax
    T7 - 7 - 8” below vetebra prominens, 3 - 4” below jugular notch
  4. Hyoid
    larynx is suspended from this bone which lies below the tongue and above the larynx ( C3 )
  5. Larynx
    • upper margin at C3 where it joins the trachea, lower margin at C6 ( C3 - C6 )
    • From hyoid & epiglotis (C3)
    • down to Cricoid cartilage & trachea (C6)
  6. Laryngeal Prominence
    Adam’s Apple / Thyroid Cartilage
  7. Trachea
    • 2 cm diameter
    • 11 cm long
    • C6 to T4 or T5
    • contains about 20 c-shaped rings of cartilage
  8. Thyroid Gland
    located just below larynx ( at about C6 )
  9. Parathyroid glands
    imbedded in posterior surface of lateral lobes of thyroid gland
  10. Thymus gland
    located just inferior to thyroid gland
  11. Four main parts of Respiratory system
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Right and Left bronchi
    • Right and Left lungs
  12. R Primary Bronchus
    wider, shorter, and more vertical than L Primary Bronchus.  Since Rbronchus is more vertical, food particles or other foreign bodies inhaled are more likely to move into R bronchus than L bronchus
  13. Carina
    • Where trachea ends and airway divides into R and L main bronchus
    • C5
  14. Secondary Bronchi
    R lung has 3 secondary bronchi / lobar bronchi L lung has 2 secondary bronchi / lobar bronchi  These correspond to the R lung’s 3 lobes and the L lung’s 2 lobes.
  15. Bronchioles
    secondary bronchi branch off further into smaller “bronchioles”, and further into terminal bronchioles where they terminate into Alveolar Sacs
  16. Alveolar sacs
    groups of alveoli found at ends of terminal bronchioles
  17. Alveoli
    tiny sacs where O2 and CO2 are exchanged.  500 to 700 million of them in both lungs
  18. Lobes of the Lungs
    R lung has 3 lobes: Superior, Middle, Inferior.  L lung has two lobes: Superior and Inferior
  19. Fissures of the lungs
    R lung has two fissures: Horizontal Fissure between Superior and Middlelobes, and Oblique Fissure between Middle and Inferior lobes.  L lung has only one fissure: Oblique Fissure between Superior and Inferior lobes
  20. Parenchyma
    Light, spongy, highly elastic material which makes up the lungs.
  21. Pleura
    • Double-walled sac that surrounds each lung
    • Visceral Pleura - the inner wall of the Pleura
    • Parietal Pleura - the outer wall of the Pleura Pleural Cavity - fluid-filled space between visceral and parietal pleura
  22. Pneumothorax
    when air gets into the pleural cavity
  23. Hemothorax
    when blood gets into the pleural cavity
  24. Pericardium / Pericardial sac
    double-walled sac that surrounds the heart
  25. Mediastinum
    • Medial portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs.
    • Thymus gland
    • Heart and great vessels
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
  26. Thymus Gland
    Located behind upper sternum.  Very prominent in youth, maximum size at puberty, then decreases in size to almost nothing in adulthood
  27. Heart and Great Vessels
    Extends from T5 - T8.  Mostly on L side of median plane.  The heart and roots of great vessels are surrounded by the pericardium
  28. Great Vessels
    • Inferior Vena Cava ( IVC )
    • Superior Vena Cava ( SVC )
    • Aorta
    • large pulmonary arteries and veins