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What is an ethnography?
the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures.
What was Edward Tylor’s definition of “culture”?
Culture… is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by [a human] as a member of society.”
What do we mean when we say “Anthropology is a holistic discipline?”
it is concerned with all human beings across times and places, and with all dimensions of humanity
What role did coffee houses play in social change in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
- Established the association of coffee with a particular kind of modern urban style
- Responded to the needs for public personal space
- Became places where people from different walks of life would gather.
What is wrong with the idea of a “primitive culture”?
What is the difference between “modernization” and “globalization”?
- Modernization: improvements in technology within a country
- Globalization: the spreading of culture around the world and becoming open to international movement of people
What is the difference between “direct” and “representative” democracy?
- People vote directly on issues
- People elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf
What is a “banana republic”?
A country that is economically or politically dominated by a foreign corporation
What is “neo-colonialism”?
A kind of intervention in the politics and economies of less developed countries whereby a corporation or industry creates a dependent relationship requiring the less developed country to produce raw materials to support the industrialized economy of the more dominant powers
What consequences are there to the large trade in commodities at the New York Mercantile Exchange?
If a large portion of an economy is based on a commodity and the overall price of that commodity drops then that economy will suffer.
What does Steger mean when he uses the term “globality”?
Used to signify a social condition characterized by tight global, economic, political, cultural, and environmental interconnections and flow
What does Steger reserve the term “globalization” for?
The process that transform the social condition of national identity to the larger framework of global solidarity
What does Steger mean by the “global imaginary”?
People becoming more conscious of connections which supersede nationality throughout the world
What does Steger mean by “globality”?
A term used for the end point of the globalization process, a condition where current concepts of nationality would be left behind
What are some of the reasons that people have moved around the globe?
Climate change, voluntary, exploration/discovery, slavery, fleeing religious prosecution, expelled from native country, to avoid prosecution from the British, to avoid famine
Why do some countries encourage the immigration of young people?
- To replace an aging work force and to pay for the social benefits of the elderly
- To support their economies
Which social class benefits the most from immigration? Who suffers the most?
- Previous wave of immigrants suffers the most if the new waves compete for their jobs
- Next wave benefits
What are the positive and negative effects of migration on migrant’s home countries?
- A loss of working class people,
- youth leaving an aging population behind with less support
- brain drain – come to get educated and do not return home after
- cash is sent home positive
- sometimes educated people return home and set up businesses
Does Steger think globalization is a recent phenomenon?
No, each stage of technological advances that assist in the globalization process is on the shoulders of advances made by previous generations.
hat are the characteristics of the first stage of globalization (Prehistoric 10,000 BCE to3500BCE)?
- Reaching the southern tip of South America marked the of the long process of settling all five continents
- The ability to grow food
- The development of farming societies and different classes of people
What are the characteristics of the pre-modern period ((3500 BCE-1500 CE)
- The invention of writing
- The invention of the wheel
- Empires which established parliamentary rule over states
- Trade routes like the silk road
What are the characteristics of the early modern period (1500-1750)?
- Developing objective science
- Achieving a universal form of morality and law
- Liberating rational modes of thought and social organization
- The rise of European metropolitan centers and their affiliated merchant class
What are the characteristics of the modern period (1750-1980)?
- Australia and pacific islands were slowly incorporated into the European-dominated network of political, economic, and cultural exchange.
- Western capitalist enterprises gained in stature
- World trade increased dramatically
What are the characteristics of the Contemporary Period (1980 to present)?
- The dramatic creating, expansion, and acceleration of worldwide interdependencies and global exchange
- Different and widely spaced people and social connections coming together more rapidly than ever before
- The internet
What is the most important thing to remember about conducting an ethnographic interview?
That you are either the host or the guest
What are some factors to consider in conducting an ethnographic interview?
- Try to identify their position in the culture being investigated and make that clear in their written product
- If interviewing in someone’s home, remember it is their space
- Presenting a small gift will help establish the host guest relationship
- Always identify yourself
- Put yourself in a social context that the person you are interviewing can identify
- Body language is important
What are the characteristics of a “third space” in urban life?
- A third space is a place to fill the gap between home and work.
- A place where the responsibilities of those primary locations have no weight and a place where the definitions of the individual are lighter and more fluid
What do the more rigid time schedules of modern Japan have to do with the café?
The cafes became more important because people needed a place where they could let go of their responsibilities and take some time to relax.
How did the use of waitresses change cafes? How did café’s change the perception ofWomen’s roles in Japan?
- The use of waitresses changed cafes by making them more modern.
- Is changed the perception of women’s roles by making women more free and less bound by tradition.
- The revolution in social forms, appearance, and behavior happened most visibly and with the most shock value among women.
Describe the part of this chapter that might be considered an ethnography rather than ethnohistory?
Describing how the modernization of the café transformed parts of Japanese culture and how it changed the social roles of some women.
What is a capitalist? What are the institutional supports for capitalism?
- People who provide capital for business.
- An increase in demand for goods
- The increase in the supply or capital
- A growth in population
- An expansion of agriculture
- State support for trade
- The absence of the merchant class
Describe China as center for learning and trade in 1400.
- A population of 100 million
- Most technologically advanced country in the world
- Thriving iron industry
- Advanced weaponry
Describe the relationship of sugar and slavery in the 16th and 17th centuries.
- Labor intensive work and slaved provided much of the labor
- By 1600 275k slaves were sent from west Africa to America
- 17th century, sugar would begin to play a major role in the world economy
What is terra nullius?
Land belonging to no one
What was the role of the trading company? Use the Dutch East India Company as an example
- Early/first transnational corporation
- Got a charter from the king of the Netherlands and give a certain amount of the profits
- Given a monoply of trade in asia and make their own treaties
- Had own army and navy
- Bought goods in Europe and sold in Asia for 20-25% profits
Discuss how the production patterns of the Industrial Revolution in England forced people to begin "selling their labor”.
By combining the means or production with labor power to produce commodities
What was the effect of the Bretton Woods Conference on globalization?
The world went on the gold standard and the thee organizations from next module
What is a corporation? What is the advantage of incorporating?
- Is an agreement between a state and a group of investors that permits them to do business in ways that individuals cannot
- Protects them from personal liability
What was the 1886 case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Compan?Why is it important?
- Changed the relationship between business and law
- Decided the private corporation was a person and where given the same rights as individuals
What beliefs are fundamental to corporate culture?
- Sustained economic growth is the path to human progress
- Markets should be unrestrained by government regulation
- Goods should be able to flow freely around the world
- Moving functions of government and public assets into the private sector improves efficiency
- The government should provide an infrastructure which promotes commerce and protect its property right and contracts
What three international institutions were created at the Bretton Woods Conference and what do they do?
- International monetary fund: oversees stability of exchange rates
- General agreement on tariffs and trades (GATT): ensures free trade of commodities
- World bank: makes loans for development projects
What international agreement about currency was made at the Bretton Woods Conference? Why was it important?
- Agreed to exchange the currency of their countries for the dollar at fixed rates
- Important because it meant that the world had an international currency standard
Is the world still on the gold standard?
No longer on the gold standard
Why did rich countries encourage poor countries to borrow money from the World Bank in the 1970’s? What happened to this development money?
- To encourage development around the world
- A lot of unfinished projects and pocketed by corrupt officials
How does Steger define economic globalization?
The intensification and stretching of economic connections around the globe
According to Steger, what institutions are the major building blocks of the Twenty-first century’s global economic structure?
- Asian Pacific Economic corporation
- European Union
Who does Steger say was the architect of the Bretton Woods Agreement and what was its basic principle?
- John Maynard Keynes
- State interventionism and controlled capitalism
Who does Steger say defeated “controlled capitalism”?
What is neoliberalism?
An approach to economics in which control of economic factors is shifte4d from the public sector to the private sector.