Ethics in America
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Believed people behave as they do because of seeking happiness, the ultimate human good.
Writter of the Republic, went beyond idea happiness requires a virtuous soul & asks why people should be virtuous.
Hedonic calculus - value based on which traits
Intensity, Duration, Certainty or Uncertainty, Propinquity or remoteness, fecundity, purity, and extent(for a group)
Compels action in a given situation, what you ought to do depends on what you desire. i.e. I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something. "Desire"
Denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that asserts its authority in all circumstances, both required and justified as an end in itself. "Duty"
Believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war.
Concept develpoed by Rawls; where a group of rational people who do not know if they will be advantaged or desadvantaged, must establish a set of rules that are fair for all.
A school which argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. A justification for evaluating actions in terms of how much pleasure and how little pain they produce.
General Justice vs. Particular Justice
Aristotle stated General Justice was universal justice that can only exist in a perfect society and Particular Justice is where punishment is given out for a particular crime or act of injustice.
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