Anatomy Lecture Quiz 4

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kmartinez7
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307935
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Anatomy Lecture Quiz 4
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2015-09-16 18:54:50
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Anatomy Lecture Chapter 13 Nervous System
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Ch. 13 The Nervous System: Neural Tissue
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  1. Which 2 organ systems coordinate & direct activities of other organ systems?
    Nervous & Endocrine
  2. Functions of the nervous system?
    • - provides swift, brief responses to stimuli
    • - encompasses all neural tissue in body
  3. Function of endocrine system?
    adjusts metabolic operations & directs long-term changes
  4. Anatomical subdivisions of nervous system?
    • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain & spinal cord
    • 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - somatic, autonomic, & special visceral sensory receptors [neural tissues outside CNS]
  5. Functional subdivisions of nervous system?
    • 1. Afferent Division - transmits info from somatic & visceral receptors to CNS
    • 2. Efferent Division - carries motor commands to muscles & glands
  6. Efferent division includes?
    • 1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS) - voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
    • 2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - automatic, involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glandular activity under control of parasympathetic & sympathetic
  7. Classifications of receptors?
    Somatic & Visceral
  8. What are the 2 types of cells in a neural tissue?
    • 1. Neurons - responsible for info transfer & processing
    • 2. Neuroglia/Glial Cells - supporting cells in nervous system
  9. A typical neuron consists of?
    • - cell body (soma)
    • - axon (carries info in the form of nerve impulses
    • - several dendrites
  10. What are the 4 types of neuroglia/glial cells in the CNS?
    • 1. astrocytes
    • 2. oligodendrocytes
    • 3. microglia
    • 4. ependymal cells
  11. Astrocytes:
    • - largest, most numerous glial cells
    • - maintains blood-brain barrier to isolate CNS from general circulation
    • - provides structural support for CNS
    • - regulates ion & nutrient concentrations
    • - perform repairs to stabilize tissue & prevent further injury
  12. Oligodendrocytes:
    • - wrap CNS axons in membrane sheath called myelin
    • - gaps between myelin wrappings along axon are called nodes of Ranvier
    • - large areas wrapped in myelin are called internodes
    • - regions primarily containing myelinated axons appear glossy white & are called white matter
  13. Microglias:
    • - smallest nuroglial cells
    • - phagocytic cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products, & pathogens
    • - increase in number as a result of infection/injury
  14. Ependymal Cells:
    • - atypical epithelial cells that line chambers & passageways filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain & spinal cord
    • - assist in producing, circulating, & monitoring CSF
  15. Ganglia/Peripheral Nerves:
    neuron cell bodies in PNS are clustered into ganglia, & their axons form peripheral nerves
  16. Types of PNS glial cells?
    • 1. satellite cells
    • 2. Schwann cells
  17. Function of satellite cells?
    enclose neuron cell bodies in ganglia
  18. Function of Schwann cells?
    cover all peripheral axons, whether myelinated or unmyelinated
  19. Neurons:
    • - perikaryon of neuron is cytoplasm surrounding nucleus
    • - contains organelles, including neurofilaments, neurotubules, & bundles of neurofilaments - termed neurofibrils - which extend into dendrites & axon 
    • - axon hillcock, specialized region of axon; connects initial segment of axon to cell body; cytoplasm of axon is axoplasm & contain numerous organelles
  20. Collaterals:
    side branches from axon
  21. Telodendria:
    • - series of fine, terminal extensions branching from axon tip
    • - end at synaptic terminals
  22. Synapse:
    site of intercellular communication between neuron & another cell
  23. Location of synaptic knob?
    located where 1 neuron synapses on another
  24. Synaptic communication involves?
    release of specific chemicals called neurotransmitters
  25. Structural classification of neurons?
    • 1. anaxonic - no distinguishable axon
    • 2. bipolar - 1 dendrite & 1 axon
    • 3. psuedounipolar - dendrite & axon are continuous @ 1 side of cell body
    • 4. multipolar - several dendrites & 1 axon
  26. What are the 3 functional categories of neurons?
    • 1. sensory
    • 2. motor
    • 3. interneurons (association neurons)
  27. Sensory Neurons:
    • - form afferent division of PNS & deliver info from sensory receptors to CNS
    • - receptors are categorized as exteroceptors (provide info from external environment)
    • - proprioceptors (monitor position & movement of joint)
    • - interoceptors (monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, & reproductive systems

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