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Which 2 organ systems coordinate & direct activities of other organ systems?
Nervous & Endocrine
Functions of the nervous system?
- - provides swift, brief responses to stimuli
- - encompasses all neural tissue in body
Function of endocrine system?
adjusts metabolic operations & directs long-term changes
Anatomical subdivisions of nervous system?
- 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain & spinal cord
- 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - somatic, autonomic, & special visceral sensory receptors [neural tissues outside CNS]
Functional subdivisions of nervous system?
- 1. Afferent Division - transmits info from somatic & visceral receptors to CNS
- 2. Efferent Division - carries motor commands to muscles & glands
Efferent division includes?
- 1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS) - voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
- 2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - automatic, involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glandular activity under control of parasympathetic & sympathetic
Classifications of receptors?
Somatic & Visceral
What are the 2 types of cells in a neural tissue?
- 1. Neurons - responsible for info transfer & processing
- 2. Neuroglia/Glial Cells - supporting cells in nervous system
A typical neuron consists of?
- - cell body (soma)
- - axon (carries info in the form of nerve impulses
- - several dendrites
What are the 4 types of neuroglia/glial cells in the CNS?
- 1. astrocytes
- 2. oligodendrocytes
- 3. microglia
- 4. ependymal cells
- - largest, most numerous glial cells
- - maintains blood-brain barrier to isolate CNS from general circulation
- - provides structural support for CNS
- - regulates ion & nutrient concentrations
- - perform repairs to stabilize tissue & prevent further injury
- - wrap CNS axons in membrane sheath called myelin
- - gaps between myelin wrappings along axon are called nodes of Ranvier
- - large areas wrapped in myelin are called internodes- regions primarily containing myelinated axons appear glossy white & are called white matter
- - smallest nuroglial cells
- - phagocytic cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products, & pathogens
- - increase in number as a result of infection/injury
- - atypical epithelial cells that line chambers & passageways filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain & spinal cord
- - assist in producing, circulating, & monitoring CSF
neuron cell bodies in PNS are clustered into ganglia, & their axons form peripheral nerves
Types of PNS glial cells?
- 1. satellite cells
- 2. Schwann cells
Function of satellite cells?
enclose neuron cell bodies in ganglia
Function of Schwann cells?
cover all peripheral axons, whether myelinated or unmyelinated
- - perikaryon of neuron is cytoplasm surrounding nucleus
- - contains organelles, including neurofilaments, neurotubules, & bundles of neurofilaments - termed neurofibrils - which extend into dendrites & axon
- - axon hillcock, specialized region of axon; connects initial segment of axon to cell body; cytoplasm of axon is axoplasm & contain numerous organelles
side branches from axon
- - series of fine, terminal extensions branching from axon tip
- - end at synaptic terminals
site of intercellular communication between neuron & another cell
Location of synaptic knob?
located where 1 neuron synapses on another
Synaptic communication involves?
release of specific chemicals called neurotransmitters
Structural classification of neurons?
- 1. anaxonic - no distinguishable axon
- 2. bipolar - 1 dendrite & 1 axon
- 3. psuedounipolar - dendrite & axon are continuous @ 1 side of cell body
- 4. multipolar - several dendrites & 1 axon
What are the 3 functional categories of neurons?
- 1. sensory
- 2. motor
- 3. interneurons (association neurons)
- - form afferent division of PNS & deliver info from sensory receptors to CNS
- - receptors are categorized as exteroceptors (provide info from external environment)
- - proprioceptors (monitor position & movement of joint)
- - interoceptors (monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, & reproductive systems