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2015-09-16 18:40:29

test 2
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  1. Slow growth. Well defined caspule. Not invasive. Well differentiated. Low mitotic index. Does not metz
    Benign tumor
  2. Rapid growth. Not encapsulated. Invasive. Poorly differentiated. Hugh mitotic index. Spread distantly.
    Malignant tumors
  3. Poorly differentiated
  4. Spreads distantly
  5. Cancer from blood forming cells (2)
    Lymphatic and leukemias
  6. Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin
    Carcinoma in situ (CIS)
  7. Hall mark of cancer cells. Loss of cell differentiation. Irregular size and shape of nucleus. Loss of normal tissue structure. Without form. Loss of organization. Increase in nuclear size with ongoing proliferation
  8. Cancers are named according to
    Cell type from which they originate
  9. Cancer from epithelial tissue
  10. Cancer from ductal or glandular structure
  11. Cancer from connective tissue
  12. Cancer from lymphatic tissue
  13. Cancer from blood forming cells
  14. Process of original cells becoming cancer cells.
  15. Cancer cell independence from normal cell control and part of transformational process
  16. Transformed cells lack normal _____ seen in nontransformed cells
    Social control
  17. Cancer cells show defects in normal process
  18. Substance produce by cancer cells found on tumor plasma membranes or blood, spinal fluid, urine. Includes hormones, enzymes, genes, antigens, and antibodies. Screen and identify cancer. Diagnose specific type of tumor. Follows clinical course of cancer
    Tumor markers.
  19. Mutation occurs un single cell. Can accumulate fast. Proliferates and becomes tumor. Additional mutations equals additional tumors
    Clonal selection
  20. Cells that self renew by cell divisions. Mulipotent. Can differentiate into multiple different cell types.
    Stem cells
  21. Cancer is predominately a disease of....
  22. Due to mutation cell acquiring characteristics allowing it to have selective advantage over its neighbors. Increased growth. Decreased apoptosis
    Clonal proliferation and Expansion
  23. Specific hits have to occur full-blown cancer
    4 to 7
  24. ____ accumulations of alterations occur in specific genes
  25. Some Cancer cells are able to secrete growth factors that stimulate their own growth
    Autocrine stimulation
  26. Cancer cell that has an increase in growth factor receptor's
    Breast cancer
  27. Cancer cells that exhibit inactivation
    Anti growth signals
  28. Pathways to apoptosis is disabled in advance cancers by
    Excessive growth
  29. Cancer cells must have mutations that enable them to proliferate in the absence of
    External growth signals
  30. As cancer grows they need their own blood supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients. advanced cancers can secrete factors that stimulate new blood vessel growth
  31. Responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity. Loss of function leads to increased mutation rates. Encode proteins that are involved in repairing dna
    Caretaker genes
  32. Malfunctions in the cellular machinery that regulates chromosomal segregation at mitosis results and a high rates of chromosomal loss as well as loss of heterozygosity and chromosomal amplification each of these events Can accelerates the loss of tumor suppressor gene and the over expression of oncogenes
    Chromosome instability (CN)
  33. Hallmark of cancer cells is there
  34. Protective and or caps on each chromosome and our place and maintained by a specialized enzyme
  35. Specialized enzyme on telomeres are called. When cancer cells become small this makes it possible for them to divide over and over again
  36. Mutant genes that are in their non-mutant states. Direct protein synthesis and cellular growth
  37. Encode proteins that negatively regulate Proliferation. (2 names)
    • Tumor suppressor genes
    • Anti oncogenes
  38. Normal non-mutants genes that code for cellular growth
    Pronto oncogenes
  39. Positive signal for cell proliferation
    MYC protein
  40. Changes occur in one or a few nucleotide base pairs. Ras converts regulated proto oncogene to a unregulated oncogene. Accelerates growth.
    Point mutations
  41. Piece of one chromosome is transferred to another
    Chromosome translocation
  42. A small piece of chromosome is duplicated over and over results in increased expression of oncogene
    Gene amplification
  43. Allows unregulated cellular growth takes two hits to inactivate the two alleles of tumor suppressor gene
    Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes
  44. Both chromosomal copies of gene are inactivated
    Loss of heterozygosity
  45. Whole regions of chromosomes are shutoff while the same regions in other cells remain active. Does not require mutations or changes in DNA
    Gene silencing
  46. Immunization with tumor antigens to elicit or enhance the immune response against a particular cancer
    Active immunotherapy
  47. Injecting the patient diagnosed with cancer with antibodies or lymphocytes directed against a tumor associated antigen
    Passive immunotherapy
  48. Developed from b cell lymphoma. From transplant (post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Associated with burkitt lymphoma in areas of endemic malaria and nasopharyngeal ca
    Epstein - Barr virus
  49. Virus occurs with immunocompromised. AIDS
    Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (kshv)
  50. Oncogenic retrovirus linked to development of adult t cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATLL)
    Human t cell lymphotropic virus type 1
  51. Implicated in cervical cancer. readily detected by Pap smear vaccines. protecting against several types causes genital warts
    HPV human papillomavirus
  52. Types ____ cause cervical cancer and type ____ cause genital warts

  53. Confer up to 200 fold increased risk of developing liver CA. vaccine expected to decrease incidence
    Chronic hep B
  54. Presents an increased risk of liver cancer. no live vaccine available
    Chronic hep C infection
  55. Important factor in development of cancer and predisposes a person to cancer
  56. Stimulates bone healing response that includes proliferation and new blood vessel growth. Organs susceptible are GI pancreas thyriod gland prostate urine bladder pleura skin
    Active inflammation
  57. Those with ulcerative colitis for 10 years or more have up to 30 fold increase of developing what
    Colon cancer
  58. Chronic asthma increases risk for what
    Lung cancer
  59. Generates prostaglandins in acute inflammation. Associated with colon cancer. Long term high dose of aspirin and NSAIDS
    Enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (cox 2)
  60. Chronic infections associated with peptic ulcer disease stomach carcinoma mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Bacteria directly and indirectly produce genetic and epigenetic changes in infected stomachs. Mutation in p53 gene. Alterations in methylation of specific genes.
    Helicobacter pylori
  61. Successful tumors manipulate cells of which two responses
    Inflammatory and immune
  62. Three inductions that benefit cancer progression and increase resistance of chemotherapeutic agents
    Cellular proliferation. Neovascularization (angiogenesis). Local immune suppression
  63. Key cell that promotes tumor survival. Develops the capacity to block cytotoxic T cell and natural killer (nk) cell functions. Produces cytokines. Secretes angiogenesis and promotes blood flow
    Tumor associated macrophage. (TAM)
  64. Advantageous for tumor growth and spread
  65. The spread of cancer cells from one site of the original tumor to distant tissues and organs through the body. Complex process. Cells need new abilities of invading survival proliferation in a new environment and recruits new blood vessel growth
  66. Local spread. First step in mets process. Cancer often spreads first to regional lymph nodes through the lymphatic system and then to distant Organs through the bloodstream. Requires cancer attach to specific receptors and survive in specific environment
  67. Secreted by cancer cells digest the extracellular matrix and basement membranes creates pathways through which the cell can move
  68. Predisposed to cancer and are almost invariably in Tumor suppressor genes. Results in transmission of cancer causing genes from one generation to the next producing families with high incidence of specific cancers
    Germline cells
  69. Cancer stage confined to its organ of origin
    Stage 1
  70. Cancer that is locally invasive
    Stage 2
  71. Cancer that has advance to regional structures
    Stage 3
  72. Cancer that spread to different sites
    Stage 4
  73. TNM stands for
    Tumor. Nodes. Metastasis.
  74. Primarily associated with squamous and small cell carcinoma's of the lungs and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths.
    Tobacco smoke.