Patho 1 test

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Patho 1 test
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2015-09-16 18:33:19
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  1. Double membrane bound, generates energy, inner membrane contains enzyme of respiratory chain, generates most ATP
    Mitochrondria
  2. Small granules of RNA, Freely float cytoplasm or membrane rough endoplasmic reticulum, protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  3. Within plasma network, RER (rough) and SER (smooth)
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  4. Site of protein synthesis inside endoplasmic reticulum
    RER
  5. Prominent in liver, most important function is catabolism
    SER
  6. Breakdowns molecules into smaller units that are oxidized to release energy
    Catabolism
  7. Energy using process of catabolism
    Anabolism
  8. Refining factory and direct traffic, secretory vesicles, proteins pass through and become modified before being packaged into secretory granules. Forms glycoproteins and lipoproteins.
    Golgi complex
  9. needed for normal digestion of nutrients, cell debris, and extracellular substances removed from body
    Lysomes
  10. 40 digestive enzymes
    Hydrolases
  11. Bones and muscles of cell, maintains shape and internal organization, permits movement of substances within cell and external projections (sperm, cilia)
    Cytoskeleton
  12. Energy transferring molecules of carbs lipids protein when catabolized
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  13. In Mitochondria and energy produced from carbs fats proteins then tranferred to ATP
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  14. Water and small electrically, uncharged molecules move through pores in plasma membrane lipid bilayer; don't require expenditure of energy, driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure and diffusion
    Passive transport
  15. Large molecules and complexes move into the cell, requires energy by ATP expenditure
    Active transport
  16. Taking in large molecules
    Endocytosis
  17. Fluids transported by means of expelling
    Exocytosis
  18. Water & electrically charged particles are transported and embedded in the plasma membrane by..
    Protein channels
  19. Passive movement of a solute from area of higher to lower concentration
    Diffusion
  20. Mechanical force of water pushing against cellular membranes.
    Hydrostatic pressure
  21. Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from lower to higher solute concentration
    Osmosis
  22. Active transport and vesicle formation, substance transported is engulfed by a segment of plasma membrane, forms vesicle that moves into cell
    Endocytosis
  23. The inside of the cell is more _____ charged than the outside of cell, difference of voltage is the resting potential of plasma membrane
    Negatively
  24. When an excitable nerve or muscle cell receives an electrochemical stimulus, ____ enters the cell
    Cations
  25. Hormone signaling involves ___ cells that secrete hormone chemicals released by one cell and travel through tissue and bloodstream to produce response in other cells
    Endocrine (thyroid stimulating hormone)
  26. Communication released by blood by neurosecretory neurons
    Neurohormonal signaling
  27. Cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up destroyed immobilized
    Paracrine signaling
  28. Signaling cells that may act back on the cells of origin "autostimulation"
    Autocrine signaling
  29. Involves incoming signals or instructions from extracellular chemical messengers that are conveyed to cells interior execution. Signaling cascades or relay chains with several functions
    Signaling transduction
  30. Signal from place which it is received to some other part of cell where it expected
    Transfer
  31. Stronger binding, multiplying effect
    Amplify
  32. Several processes in parallel
    Distribute
  33. Other factors inside and outside the cell
    Modulate
  34. Cellular reproduction- the M phase of _____
    Mitosis
  35. Mechanisms that control cell division depend on what
    Social control genes and protein growth factors
  36. The first appearance of chromosomes
    Prophase
  37. Spindle pull centromeres of chromosomes
    Metaphase
  38. Centromere split and chromatids pull apart
    Anaphase
  39. New nuclear membrane formed
    Telophase
  40. Growth factors, peotides that transmit signals between cells
    Cytokines
  41. Eukaryotic cells contain structures called ____ histones, they have well defined nucleus and are larger than prokaryotic cells
    Organelles
  42. Function of histone found in eukaryote cell focuses on cellular_____ ; histones are binding proteins that cause supercoiling of DNA into chromosomes and do not affect cell division movement and activities
    DNA folding
  43. Organelle that is responsible for metabolism of cellular energy is referred to as
    Mitochondrion
  44. ____ holds cells together by continuous bands.
    Desmosomes
  45. Intercellular enzyme that once triggers cascade of intracellular events
    Second messenger
  46. Oxidative cellular metabolism single reaction making adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    Cellular energy
  47. Movement of cells along chemical gradient
    Chemotaxis
  48. Amphipathic molecule is described by (2 answers)
    Hydrophobic and hydrophillic
  49. Functions of ____ are pores or transports channels, enzymes that drive pumps, cell surface markers, and synapses for cell
    Protein
  50. Solution that has higher concentration than body solution
    Hypertonic
  51. Solution has lower concentration than body solution
    Hypotonic
  52. Early stages of cell injury result in cell swelling and accumulation of excess substances within the cell
    Hydrophic swelling
  53. Biochemical themes of cell injury- increase swelling, decrease protein synthesis and transport, affects integrity of plasma membrane
    ATP depletion
  54. Biochemical themes of cell injury- ischemia, decreased blood supply causes free radicals, destruct cell structure
    Oxygen derived free radicals
  55. Biochemical themes of cell injury- internal cell affected and activates enzymes
    Intracellular calcium and loss of Ca steady state
  56. Biochemical themes of cell injury- defects in membrane permeability
    All cell injury
  57. Lack of oxygen, decrease hg, poison, decreased blood cells; movement of fluid and ions into cells is associated with acute failure of metabolism and loss of ATP production.
    Hypoxic injury
  58. Total lack of blood flow into vessels with oxygen and nutrients (arteriosclerosis and thrombosis)
    Anoxia
  59. Most common degenerative change caused by shift of extracellular water into cells
    Cellular swelling
  60. Normally present substances like fluid and electrolytes, triglycerides, uric acid; produced in excess, not effectively catabolized (energy released), harmful exogenous materials like heavy metals or microorganisms accumulate because of inhalation ingestion or infection (2 words with same meaning)
    Accumulations or infiltrates
  61. Irreversible cell injury- commonly occurs in liver cells, causes fatty liver
    Lipid accumulation
  62. Irreversible cell injury- condition in which excess iron is stored in cells of many organs and tissues
    Hemosiderosis
  63. Irreversible cell injury: ____ exceeds 1.5-2 of plasma, causes jaundice
    Bilirubin
  64. Alteration that enables cell to maintain steady state despite adverse conditions
    Cellular adaptation
  65. Decrease or shrinkage of cell size. Brain cells in elderly. Skeletal muscles and bedrest. Physiologic changes in early development in childhood with thymus gland
    Atrophy
  66. Increase in cell size and then the size of the organ is affected. Like heart and kidney, pregnancy, muscles with heavy workload. Left ventricle when exposed to HTN
    Hypertrophy
  67. Increase in the number of cells resulting from increasing rate of cellular division. Causes cell death in injury. Hormonal- removal of liver can regenerate itself. Estrogen enables uterus to enlarge. Increase in hormones with endometriosis
    Hyperplasia
  68. Abnormal changes in the size shape and organization of mature cells. Considered atypical hyperplasia. In epithelial tissue in the cervix and lungs. Found adjacent to cancerous cells but don't always turn into cancer like in pap smears.
    Dysplasia
  69. The reversible replacement of one mature cell for another. Bronchial mucosa, when irritated by cigarettes changes into stratified squamous epithelium
    Metaplasia
  70. Short lived, highly reactive, electrically uncharged atom having unpaired electron
    Free radicals
  71. Two types of cell death
    Necrosis and apoptosis
  72. Cell death leads to ____ , sum of cellular changes after local cell death and process of cellular self digestion (auto digestion) or autolysis, dense and progressive destruction of genetic material. Messy dirty process
    Necrosis
  73. Type of necrosis found in lung from TB. Tissue appears soft and granular and resembles clumped cheese
    Caseous necrosis
  74. Type of necrosis appears in kidneys heart and adrenal glands. Caused by protein degradation
    Coagulative necrosis
  75. Type of necrosis that occurs in neurons and glial cells and bacteria like staph
    Liquefactive necrosis
  76. Type of necrosis occurs in the breast pancreas and abdominal structures, its cellular dissolution caused by powerful enzymes (lipases)
    Fat necrosis
  77. Type of necrosis from death of tissue from hypoxic injury from blockage of arteries (common in diabetics)
    Gangrenous necrosis
  78. Active process off cellular self destruction, programmed cell death, dropping off of cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic shrinkage of cell, cells need to die or we will have large bodies, activated by proteins cut up, deletes cells during embryonic development, nuclear and cytoplasmic shrinkage of cell
    Apoptosis
  79. Oxidative stress, dis regulation of inflammatory hormones, malnutrition, physical activity, muscle waisting
    Frailty
  80. Most common cause of cell injury
    Hypoxia
  81. Chemical that interferes with the excretion of urate while affecting the nervous and hematopoietic systems
    Lead
  82. Gas that is as asphyxiation and interrupts respirations
    Carbon monoxide
  83. Formerly used in dry cleaning, damages liver as it is converted to highly toxic free radicals
    Carbon tetrachloride
  84. Heavy metal and can worsen chronic conditions like Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis
    Mercury
  85. Collection of blood between the inner surface of skull and dura. Result from torn artery (skull fracture)
    Epidural hematoma
  86. Collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura and the surface of the brain. Associated with blows falls sudden acceleration or deceleration of the head
    Subdural hematoma
  87. Condition in which a cerebral arterial aneurysm ruptures
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  88. Shaken baby syndrome has which type of hematoma
    Subdural
  89. Tensile strength of the skin is exceeded. Results in tagged irregular abraded edges. Area of tissue is pulled away
    Lacerations or avulsions
  90. Removal of superficial layers of skin caused by friction between the skin and injuring object.
    Abrasion
  91. Precise cut with an instrument that leaves regular clean edges. Wound is longer than it is deep and has distinct edges without abrasion
    Incision
  92. Oxygen failing to reach blood
    Suffocating
  93. Altitude and illness cause hypoxia and increased pulmonary HTN
    Pulmonary edema
  94. Mature cell type being replaced by another sometimes less mature cell type
    Metaplasia
  95. Deficiency in the blood stream of lipids
    Hypolipidemia
  96. Newborns store 75-90
    Children store 60-65
    Adults store 60% of... ____ percent declines with age. Men have greater percent compared to women. Percent declines with age.
    Total body water
  97. Concentration of solutes per kg of solution. is normally at equilibrium.
    Osmolality
  98. Osmotic forces- electrolyte mainly in ECF
    Sodium
  99. Osmotic forces- electrolyte mainly in ICF
    Potassium
  100. Family of water channel proteins that provide permeability to water
    Aquaporins
  101. How much water moves between the ICF and ECF compartments, and interstitial fluid (2 answers)
    Osmosis and hydrostatic pressure
  102. Movement of water across the capillary wall. Described according to starling law or hypothesis
    Net filtration
  103. Net filtration is equal to the forces favoring filtration minus the forces opposing filtration
    Starling hypothesis
  104. Capillary hydrostatic pressure (bp), interstitial oncotic pressure (water pulling) are forces __ filtration
    Favoring
  105. Plasma oncotic pressure, interstitial hydrostatic pressure, forces _____ filtration or forces ______ reabsorption, pressure of plasma proteins
    Opposing and favoring
  106. Potassium is cation and phosphate / organic ions are anions found in (ICF or ECF)
    Intracellular cation and anions
  107. Cations are sodium and anions are chloride and bicarbonate (ecf or icf)
    Extracellular
  108. Increases reabsorption of sodium by the distal tubules of the kidney, potent vasoconstrictor
    Aldosterone
  109. Decreases tubular resorption and promotes urinary excretion of sodium
    Natriuretic peptides
  110. Thirst perception, stimulated from hyperosmolatity, dry mouth, plasma volume depletion, increases water intake
    Osmolality receptors
  111. Thirst perception stimulated from depleted plasma volume, release ADH.
    Baroreceptors
  112. Released when there is an increase in plasma osmolality or decrease in circulating blood volume, called arginine vasopressin, increases water reabsorption
    ADH (anti diuretic hormone)
  113. Total body water change with proportional electrolyte change 0.9 NS
    Isotonic
  114. Cell shrinks, greater than 0.9 NS (3% NS)
    Hypertonic
  115. Cell swells. Less than NS. (0.45 NS)
    Hypotonic
  116. Sodium greater than 147. Water loss (from icf to ecf) causes intracellular dehydration. Convulsions, pulmonary edema, hypotension, tachycardia. Treat with isotonic salt free fluid like NS
    Hypernatremia
  117. Hypernatremia or bicarb deficit
    From hyper chloremia
  118. Free water excess, decreases the ECF osmotic pressure and water into the cell, decreased osmolality
    Hyponatremia
  119. Serum sodium level less than 135. Cause plasma hypoosmolality and cell swell. Low intake of sodium. Lethargy headache confusion apprehension seizures coma. Restrict water intake. Give IVF. LIKE 3% NS
    Hyponatremia
  120. Result of hyponatremia. Or elevated bicarb. Vomiting nausea metabolic alkalosis cystic fibrosis
    Hypochloremia
  121. Compulsive water drinking. Water intoxication. Decrease UO. (ADH causes water reabsorption). Cerebral edema. Muscle twitching. Headache weight gain. Restrict fluids need hypertonic solution. Like 0.45 NS
    SIADH water excess
  122. Decreased neuro muscular excitability. Skeletal muscle weakness. Smooth muscle atony. Cardiac dysrhythmias. U wave on ekg. Caused by DKA. (K shifts out if cell in exchange for H and then excreted. Insulin given and K is shifted into cell)
    Hypokalemia. Less than 3.5
  123. Insulin deficiency. Cell trauma. Acidosis. Tingle lips and fingers. Restless. Intestinal cramps. Diarrhea. T waves on ekg. Muscle weakness and loss of tone. Flaccid paralysis cardiac arrest. Treat calcium gluconate. Insulin. Glucose. Bicarb. Cation exchange resins. Dialysis.
    Hyperkalemia. >5.5
  124. Slightly prolonged PR interval. Prominent U wave. ST depression
    Hypokalemia
  125. Prolonged PR interval. Wide QRS. brady. Heart block. Tall peaked t wave.
    Hyperkalemia
  126. Normal phosphate level
    2.5-4.5
  127. Calcium and phosphate are _____ controlled.
    Inversely. One increases then the other decreases
  128. Normal Ca level
    8.5-12
  129. Increased neuromuscular excitability. Muscle spasm. Chvostek and trousseau signs. Convulsions. Tetany.
    Hypocalcemia (<8.5)
  130. Caused by hyperparathyriodism. Bone metz. Immobilization. Acidosis. Decreased neuromuscular excitability. Muscle weakness. Causes kidney stones constipation and heart block. Treat by giving oral phosphate. NS. calcitonin. Corticosteroids. Mithramycin
    Hypercalcemia (>12)
  131. Vit d def. ETOH abuse. Antacid use. Manifestations: diminished release of O2. Osteomalacia. Treat resp alk and increased PTH
    Hypophosphatemia
  132. High phosnrelated to low ca. Causes calcification of soft tissue. Treat with aluminum hydroxide and dialysis.
    Hyperphosphatemia
  133. Normal magnesium level
    1.8-2.4

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