Ecology Chapter 1

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Ecology Chapter 1
2015-09-26 14:20:02
Science Vocabulary

Vocab for school.
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  1. Ecosystem
    -all the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    -an ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
  3. Biotic
    -the living parts of an ecosystem (e.g plants, animals, etc.)
  4. Abiotic
    • -the non-living parts of an ecosystem
    • (e.g water, rocks, air, etc.)
  5. Lithosphere
    -the hard part of earth's surface
  6. Hydrosphere
    -all the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and ground
  7. Atmosphere
    the layer of gases above the Earth's surface
  8. Biosphere
    -the regions of Earth where living organisms exist
  9. Nutrients
    Chemicals that are essential to living things and is cycled through ecosystems
  10. Eutrophication
    • -a process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in the populations of primary producers
    • 1. Fertilizer run off from farmland into water 
    • 2. Algae Bloom 
    • 3. Submerged plants dies due to reduced light 
    • 4. Algae and other plants die 
    • 5. Bacteria use oxygen during decomposition 
    • 6. Oxygen levels in water drop too low for fish to survive
  11. Photosynthesis
    • -a process that changes solar energy into chemical energy
    • -combines oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen to makes life's universal energy supply

    • - Word equation for photosynthesis:
    • - carbon dioxide + water >>> glucose + oxygen (sunlight energy)

    • - Chemical Equation:
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    •             Sunlight energy

  12. Trophic Level
    -a category of organisms that is defined by how the organisms gain their energy

    • First trophic level: Primary producers (plants)
    • Second trophic level: Primary consumers (herbivores)
    • Third trophic level: Secondary consumers (carnivores)
    • Fourth trophic level: Tertiary consumers (top carnivores)

    energy from the sun > plants > insects > birds > bigger birds

    • plants = primary producers
    • insects = primary consumers
    • birds = secondary consumers
    • bigger birds = tertiary consumers
  13. Biomass
    -the total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • -a measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level
    • -always less than 100 %
    • -only 10 % transferred to next higher level
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • -a process in which an organism ingests materials, especially toxins, faster than it eliminates them
    • -when caused by pollution, (man-made) effects are devastating in most cases
    • -can work to the advantage of species that are not affected by toxins, because they are more likely to survive, allowing them to reproduce
  16. Biomagnification
    a process in which the concentration of ingested toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • -a process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the presence of oxygen
    • -essential to life
    • -used by most living organisms, such as humans and plants
  18. Fermentation
    -a process that releases energy from organic molecules,especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
  19. Greenhouse gases
    • -atmospheric gases that prevents heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere
    • -Greenhouse gases include: water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane
  20. Greenhouse effect
    -the warming of earth as a result of greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave earth
  21. Acid precipitation
    • -rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic (pH less than 5.6) due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids
    • -occurs when water combines with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide and creates nitric acid and sulfuric acid