Animal Development

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Author:
lduran8
ID:
307963
Filename:
Animal Development
Updated:
2015-09-17 01:41:52
Tags:
Zoology Animal Development
Folders:
Zoology
Description:
Understand the diversity of animals developmental plans
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  1. Meiosis parts of animal development (2)
    • Gamete formation
    • Fertilization
  2. Mitosis parts of animal development (4)
    • Cleavage
    • Gastrulation
    • Organogenesis
    • Growth
  3. Two processes of Gametogenesis
    Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
  4. Where does Gametogenesis occur?
    In gonads of males & females
  5. What does gametogenesis do?
    Divides homologous chromosomes into different haploid cells
  6. What are germ cells?
    Cells that give rise to gametes
  7. Where are germ cells found?
    In gonads
  8. What is spermatogenesis?
    Production & maturation of sperm in testes
  9. How many sperm cells are formed in testes?
    4 haploid sperm cells
  10. What happens to the nucleus of the haploid sperm cell?
    It condenses into a head.
  11. Function of flagellar tail
    provides locomotion
  12. What does the sperm head of all sperm cells contain?
    an acromosome
  13. What aids the sperm cell in penetrating the egg?
    Enzymes
  14. What is oogenesis?
    Production & maturation of ovum in the ovary.
  15. What is the result in production of oogenesis?
    one haploid ovum and 3 polar bodies
  16. In females, what are germ cells called?
    oogonia
  17. When do primary oocytes develop in females?
    Prior to birth
  18. In females, when does meiosis halt and continue again?
    Halts after stage one, continues after ovulation
  19. What is fertilization?
    Union of male & female gametes to form a zygote
  20. Functions of Fertilization (3)
    • # of chromosomes becomes diploid
    • Combination of maternal/paternal genes
    • Activates egg to begin development
  21. What allows the sperm into the egg?
    Gamete recognition proteins
  22. Polyspermy
    More than one sperm penetrates the egg.
  23. What is cleavage?
    Zygote divides into many cells in a series of mitotic divisions
  24. What happens to cytoplasm between mitotic divisions?
    Gets subdivided into smaller cells
  25. Yolk
    fats/sugars that feed organism
  26. Isolecithal Eggs
    Small amount of yolk
  27. Mesolecithal Eggs
    Moderate amount of yolk
  28. Telolecithal Eggs 
    Large amount of yolk
  29. Where does cleavage happen in a telolecithal egg?
    On egg's surface
  30. Lots of yolk is for animals that practice what development?
    Direct development
  31. Direct development
    Straight into a mini adult
  32. A little bit of yolk is for animals that practice what development?
    Indirect development
  33. Indirect Development
    Organism goes through a larval phase so it grows as it eats
  34. Blastula
    Hollow ball of cells with a blastocoel in the middle
  35. Dipoblastic Animals (2)
    • 2 primary germ layers
    • Incomplete gut
  36. Tripoblastic Animals (2)
    • 3 germ layers
    • ecto-,endo-, mesoderm
  37. Ectoderm
    Epithelium & nervous tissue
  38. Endoderm
    Digestive Tract
  39. Mesoderm
    Muscles, organs, skeleton
  40. Archenteron
    Gut cavity
  41. Blastopore
    Forms mouth or anus of animal
  42. Deuterostome (3)
    • Blastopore becomes anus 
    • Radial Cleavage
    • Regulative embryo
  43. Protostome (3)
    • Blastopore becomes mouth
    • Spiral cleavage
    • Mesaic embryo
  44. Coelum
    Cavity
  45. Entercoelous
    Outpocketing off of endoderm that lines archenteron
  46. Shizocoelous
    Mesoderm forms by splitting off of early germ layers
  47. Acoelomate (2)
    • Flatworm
    • Entire middle of animal fills with mesoderm
  48. Psuedocoelomate (2)
    • Roundworm
    • Thin layer of mesoderm around edge of animal
  49. Coelomate (2)
    • Segmented worms
    • Outside is filled with mesoderm & a mesoderm line forms around and outside gut
  50. Gastrulation patterns vary depending on-
    Amount of yolk & phylogeny
  51. Stem Cells (2)
    • Adult- repair cells
    • Embryo-differentiate germ layers
  52. Sexual Reproduction
    Union of gametes & exchange of genetic material
  53. Positives of sexual reproduction (2)
    • Genetic variation
    • Distinct offspring
  54. Negatives of sexual reproduction (4)
    • Complex
    • Require time & energy
    • Dangerous
    • Females only pass on half of genes
  55. Why is genetic variation beneficial?
    If there's a change in environment then offspring will survive
  56. Asexual Reproduction
    Dividing to form daughter cells/clones
  57. Positives of asexual reproduction (4)
    • No mate
    • One parent
    • Numbers increase quickly
    • Saves time & energy
  58. Budding
    New individual from a single adult (cnidarians)
  59. Fission
    Adult splitting in two
  60. Parthenogenesis
    Development of an egg without fertilization
  61. What animals practice fragmentation?
    Platyhelminthes
  62. What is the role of sperm in parthenogenesis?
    Sperm is used to activate the egg but no fertilization.
  63. Red Queen Hypothesis
    Parasites and disease are rapidly evolving because reproduction=mutation
  64. In the Red Queen Hypothesis, who do females mate with?
    Females mate with males that have genes of a different immune system
  65. Internal fertilization
    Breeding swarms
  66. External Fertilization
    Release of gametes directly into the water
  67. Hermaphrodites (3)
    • Can produce sperm & egg
    • Have both reproductive organs
    • Can be sequential or simultaneous

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