Modern Systematics

Card Set Information

Author:
lduran8
ID:
307981
Filename:
Modern Systematics
Updated:
2015-09-17 02:14:05
Tags:
Zoology Systematics
Folders:
Zoology
Description:
Understanding taxonomy and phylogeny
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  1. Taxonomy
    Naming & grouping organisms
  2. Phylogeny
    Determining the evolutionary relationships among organisms
  3. Father of Taxonomy
    Carl Linnaeus
  4. Hierarchical System of Taxonomy
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  5. Binomial Nomenclature 
    Genus Name & Species Epithet
  6. Why was taxonomy created?
    To avoid confusion from all the common names
  7. Cladogram
    Graphical representation of relationship between organisms
  8. Root of phylogenetic tree 
    Ancestral lineage
  9. Speciation
    Lineage split representing a branching on a phylogeny
  10. What does a node (split) represent?
    Common Ancestor
  11. Terminal Taxa
    Names of organisms at tips of branches being studied
  12. Sister Taxa
    2 taxa that share a common ancestor
  13. Derived Character
    Novel trait that was not present in a common ancestor
  14. Primitive Character
    Trait that was present in a common ancestor
  15. Branch
    Individual taxon
  16. Character
    Any organismal feature that is used to examine variation with in & among taxa
  17. Embryological Characters
    Used for generating phylogenetic hypothesis
  18. Anatomical Features (3)
    • Wings
    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Claws
  19. Biochemical Features
    • Amino Acid sequence of protein
    • sequence of bases
  20. Homology
    Animals all have differently shaped forelimbs reflecting their different lifestyles
  21. Synapomorphies (derived homologies)
    Inherited from different common ancestor
  22. Symplesiomorphies (shared ancestral homologies)
    Inherited from different common ancestor
  23. Analogous
    Feature that looks alike but there's no common ancestor
  24. Homoplasy
    Similarities between to species due to convergence
  25. Convergence
    Adaptation by distantly related organisms to similar environmental conditions
  26. Apomorphy
    Derived in one taxon
  27. Monophyletic Grouping (2)
    • All species in a clade share a common ancestor
    • All species derived from one common ancestor are in one clade
  28. Paraphyletic Grouping (2)
    • All species share a common ancestor
    • Not all species derived from a common ancestor are in one group
  29. Polyphyletic grouping (2)
    • Not all species in a clade share a common ancestor
    • Not all species from a common ancestor are in one clade

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