History of Psych Exam 1

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samantha.cossen
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History of Psych Exam 1
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2015-09-17 13:42:57
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  1. Great Person Orientation
    the ideas and actions of brilliant individuals shape history
  2. Zeitgeist Orientation (Spirit of the Times)
    broad impersonal force, rather than the individual mold the corse history
  3. Cyclical Theory
    History - an endless process of repetition (Herodotus)
  4. Linear Progressions Theory
    Each generation builds upon the discoveries of previous generations (Newton)
  5. Chaos Theory
    History: a series of random and unrelated events
  6. Historicism
    Objective analysis of the human past for its own sake
  7. Presentism
    interpretive study of past events (cannot be objective)
  8. Psychobiology and Psychohistory
    psychological motivation of historic events
  9. Revisionism
    Historical Record that is interpreted in accord with political dogma
  10. Epistemology
    the study of the nature of knowledge and how we understand the world
  11. Rationalism
    the source of all knowledge is reason (Apriori); active mind understanding before and then we discover it
  12. Empiricism
    Knowledge is based on sensory experience (a posteriori); passive mind understanding after experience; blank slate
  13. Reductionism
    molecular study of behavior based on simplest parts (e.g. S-R Psychology)
  14. Holism
    behavior and cognition should be studied as a whole (gestalt psychology)
  15. Monism
    the belief that one theory or approach explains all psychological phenomenon
  16. Pluralism
    belief in many explanations of behavior and cognition
  17. Materialism
    monism; the body is the only reality; the mind is an illusion
  18. Idealism
    monism; the ultimate reality consists of ideas or perceptions and is not physical
  19. Interactionism
    pluralism; mind and body interact to cause a mutual event
  20. Parallelism
    pluralism; both mind and body exist, but in parallel lines (they don't interact)
  21. Epiphenomenalism
    Pluralism; mind is a secondary phenomena caused by the body
  22. Occupationalism
    pluralism; no interaction between mind and body but there appears to be because of divine intervention
  23. Libertarian view
    human actions vary as a function of ones own free will
  24. Determinist view
    belief that all events are caused and governed by natural law
  25. Indeterminism (soft determinism)
    some events are not caused by law
  26. Fatalism
    the future is fixed irrespective of our attempts to change it; shit happens
  27. Idiographic Research
    study of psychological processes in the individual; case study
  28. Nomothetic Research
    focus on general traits rather than individual behavior; DSM5
  29. Pessimism
    • frued civilization is discontent - pessimist:
    • 3 great sources of suffering:
    • 1. natural world
    • 2. our own people
    • 3. other people
  30. Optimist
    Maslow was an optimist
  31. Past vs. Present
    • Freud in past
    • Skinner not in past
  32. Compatibilism
    acceptance, to some degree, of both sides of an issue
  33. The Physis
    idea that there was a fundamental element from which everything in the universe is derived
  34. Thales
    • - considered to be the philosopher in western civilization
    • - gets things going in the quest for the phsysis
    • - water: studied dehydration in humans and plants; studied water in its various forms; believed that the physis was very diverse
  35. Anaximander
    • - admirer of Thales
    • - iperion - without boundary/definiton = they phsyis
    • -first evolutionary theorist
    • - proposed that human beings came from the ocean
    • - first to create a world map
  36. Heraclitus
    • - becomes very critical to the idea of a psychology
    • - fire = physis; transformative
    • - gets credit as an early process philosophy
    • - everything is in process/transformation
    • - "no person steps in the same river twice"
    • - everything has changed
    • - education should be transformative
    • stagnation bothers him
    • starts to address psychology; questions human motivations
    • first libertarians; believers in free will
  37. Pythagoras
    • numbers = physics
    • if you understand numbers you can unlock the secrets of the universe
    • pioneer in civil rights; opposed slavery
    • believed in the equality of the sexes
    • starst a university, one of the first, and allowed women and men to study side by sideĀ 
    • married to a brilliant women and had a brilliant daughter Myia
    • coined philosophy from "philo" (love) and "sophia" (wisdom)
  38. Empedocles
    • first pluralist
    • multiple truths about the physis
    • 4 physis: earth, fire air and what
  39. Earth
    solid part of body
  40. Water
    liquids in body
  41. Air
    breath of life
  42. Fire
    reasoning ability
  43. Democritus
    • Atoms: reductionsim, determinsm
    • Early biopsychology:
    • - brain = thinking
    • - heart = emotion
    • - liver- appetite (passions
  44. Hippocrates
    • Four body humors:
    • earth = phlegm
    • air = blood
    • fire = yellow bile
    • water = black bile
    • Holistic emphasis - healht = balance of humors
    • nature heals illness
    • mental disorders, hysteria
  45. Aristotle *ESSAY*
    • Three Contributions:
    • 1. Empiricism: Tabula Arsa: blank slate, experience and knowledge are inseperable
    • 2. Hierarchy of the Psyche:
    • - Vegetative Psyche (Plants): growth, assimilations of food and reproduction
    • - Sensitive Psyche (Animals) = same functions of vegetative psyche, and pleasure, pain and memory
    • - Rational Psyche (Humans): vegetative and sensitive functions and reason
    • 3. Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Rational Psyche:
    • 1. sensory information - what body does
    • 2. common sense - problem solving/reason
    • 3. passive reason
    • 4. active reason
  46. Skepticism
    All beliefs can be proven false, therefore it is best to believe in nothing
  47. Michel Eyquem De Montaigne
    • Essay - "I say"
    • Apology for Raymond Sebond - defends a rationalist halfway through attacks rationalist
    • 1. Resurrected Pyrrhos Skepticism
    • 2. what can I know
    • 3. Greatest minds in philosophy can't agree on anything
    • 4. can't trust authority
    • 5. study of experience or reason
    • Humans - vain, stupid and immoral, but animals are noble simple and ignorant
  48. Empiricism
    knowledge = sensory experience (passive mind)
  49. Francis Bacon *ESSAY*
    • Novum Oraganum "New Instrument of Mind":
    • 1. First modern book on psychology
    • 2. The mind is more powerful than any scientific universe
    • 3. Unlock power of mind through experience
    • 4. Ultimate Authority = observation (facts are more important than theory), Skinner - observe than describe

    • The Idols (errors in experimental philosophy)
    • 1. Idol of the cave: cultural and personal bias
    • 2. Idol of the tribe - Bias from limitations in human reason
    • 3. Idol of the marketplace bias of verbal labels
    • 4. idol of the theatre bias resulting from acceptance of authority

    • Science should be practical
    • 1. practical science

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