Neuro- Functional NS Part 3

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Neuro- Functional NS Part 3
2015-09-20 15:45:11
vetmed neuro

vetmed neuro
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  1. Where are the receptor for the vestibular system located?
    3 in semicircular ducts (cristae ampullaris), 2 in vestibule (maculae)
  2. What are the 2 major portions of the inner ear that contribute to the vestibular system?
    bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth
  3. The bony labyrinth is filled with ____________; the membranous labyrinth is filled with ___________.
    perilymph; endolymph
  4. What are the 3 components of the bony labyrinth and their location with respect to one another?
    semicircular canals (3 on each side), vestibule (where the canals attach), cochlea (part of auditory system)
  5. What are the 3 components of the membranous labyrinth?
    semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule, cochlear duct
  6. The semicircular duct is used in maintaining ____________.
    dynamic equilibrium (rotary motion)
  7. The utricle and saccule are within the __________; they are used to maintain ___________.
    vestibule; static equilibrium (linear acceleration)
  8. The fenestra cochleae is in the __________ and is aka the _________.
    cochlea; round window
  9. The fenestra vestibuli is in the ___________ and is aka the _________.
    vestibule; oval window
  10. What are the 2 components of hair cells?
    kinocilum (one long cilium), sterocilia (bunch of small cilia)
  11. For rotary movement and dynamic equilibrium, the receptor units are ____________; they are embedded in the _________ in each ___________ of semicircular ducts.
    cristae ampullares; cupula; ampulla
  12. For linear acceleration and static equilibrium, the receptor cells are __________, which are embedded in the __________ in each ____________.
    maculae; otolithic membrane; utricle and saccule
  13. What does it mean that vestibular fibers are bipolar sensory neurons?
    there is a dendritic portion receiving the stimulus and an axon portion carrying the stimulus out
  14. Primary vestibular fibers are axons coming from the __________ and going to... (2)
    vestibular ganglion; vestibular nuclei in the brainstem and fastigial nucleus in the cerebellum
  15. What 3 structures meet at the cerebellomedullary angle?
    CN VIII, cerebellum (ventral aspect), and rostral extent of the medulla
  16. How is a signal transmitted through the vestibular system?
    head moves--> endolymph hits the cupula--> as cupula moves, it causes vibration in the kinocilum--> discharge of transmitter substances--> picked up by vestibular n. dendrites--> signal to vestibular ganglion--> primary vestibular fibers leave vestibular ganglion and transmit signal to vestibular nuclei in brainstem or fastigial nucleus in cerebellum
  17. What are the 4 pairs of vestibular nuclei in the brainstem?
    rostral, caudal, lateral, medial
  18. The rostral vestibular nuclei are responsible for _____________; they send fibers to the ____________.
    conjugate eye movement; extraocular nuclei of CN III, IV, VI
  19. The caudal vestibular nuclei sends fibers to the ____________.
  20. The lateral vestibular nuclei send out fibers that form the ________________ to regulate __(2)__; it sends fibers to ___________.
    lateral vestibulospinal tract; muscle tone and balance; all the muscles of the body
  21. The medial vestibular nuclei send out fibers that form the _______________ to regulate _________ in the __(2)__.
    medial vestibulospinal tract; muscle tone; cervical and thoracic limb muscles
  22. Axons from the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem to their targets of distribution.
    secondary vestibular fibers
  23. Within the spinal cord, the lateral vestibulospinal tract increases _________ and decreases _________.
    ipsilateral extensor tone; contralateral extensor tone
  24. Within the spinal cord, the medial vestibulospinal tract helps to coordinate _______________ and _____________.
    activity of the limb and trunk; movement of the head
  25. Within the brainstem, the extraocular nuclei associated with the vestibular system regulate _________.
    conjugate eye movement
  26. Within the brainstem, the vomition center of the vestibular system is the site of __________, which can contribute to ___________.
    collateral fiber synapse; motion sickness
  27. The vestibulocerebellar tract send primary fibers to the ____________ and secondary fibers to the ___________ of the cerebellum to control __________.
    fastigial nucleus; flocculonodular lobe; balance
  28. The special tract formed by secondary vestibular fibers from all of the vestibular nuclei.
    medial longitudinal fasciculus
  29. What are the 2 branches of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and where do they go?
    ascending branch to form the vestibulomesencephalic tract to extraocular LMN nuclei; descending branch to contribute to medial vestibulospinal tract to regulate extensor tone
  30. The _____________ is formed by the ascending branch of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and goes to the __________.
    vestibulomesencephalic tract; extraocular LMN nuclei
  31. The ______________ receives fibers from the descending branch of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and regulates ___________.
    medial vestibulospinal tract; extensor tone
  32. What are generalized signs in the eye of vestibular disease?
    pathologic nystagmus (involuntary oscillation of the eye)
  33. What are generalized signs of vestibular disease and posture? (5)
    asymmetric ataxia, falling over, circling, loss of balance, head tilt
  34. What are generalized signs of vestibular disease that manifest as changes in extensor tone?
    decreased tone ipsilaterally to lesion, increased tone contralaterally to lesion
  35. What are extra-pyramidal 3 nuclei in the diencephalon?
    zona incerta, endopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus
  36. What are 3 extra-pyramidal nuclei in the mesencephalon?
    substantia nigra, tegmental nucleus, red nucleus
  37. What is the most important extrapyramidal center in animals?
    red nucleus in the mesencephalon
  38. Afferent information to the red nucleus is... (3)
    info from motor cortex, other extrapyramidal nuclei, cerebellum
  39. Efferent information from the red nucleus is...
    out of the spinal cord for LMN regulation (rubrospinal tract)
  40. The rubrospinal tract is formed by ___________ from the ___________; it's located in the _____________.
    efferent fibers; red nucleus; lateral funiculus
  41. The extra-pyramidal spinal tract from the metencephalon is the _________________; it has an __________ function.
    pontine reticular formation and nucleus; excitatory
  42. Extra-pyramidal fibers originating from the _____________ in the metencephalon cross to form the ______________, which is also called the ______________.
    pontine reticular formation and nucleus; pontine reticulospinal tract; ventral reticulospinal tract
  43. Extra-pyramidal fibers originating from the _____________ in the myelencephalon cross to form the ______________, which is also called the ______________.
    medullary reticular formation in nucleus; medullary reticulospinal tract; lateral reticulospinal tract
  44. The extra-pyramidal fibers from the myelencephalon form the ________________, which has an _____________ function.
    medullary reticular formation and nucleus; inhibitory
  45. Extra-pyramidal tracts going out to the spinal cord. (4)
    rubrospinal tract, pontine reticulospinal tract, medullary reticulospinal tract, vestibulospinal
  46. Cerebellum develops from the _________.
    rhombic lip
  47. The cerebellum is part of the _________; its purpose is...
    metencephalon; monitoring sensory information and coordinate it w/ motor responses
  48. What is the vermis of the cerebellum?
    vermis is midline strip of tissue separating the hemispheres
  49. What are the grooves and ridges of the cerebellum called?
    folia and sulci
  50. Describe the association of grey and white matter in the cerebellum?
    cortical grey matter, sub-cortical grey matter (nuclei), arbor vitae white matter
  51. What are the lobes of the cerebellum?
    rostral, caudal, flocculonodular
  52. What are the fissures of the cerebellum, and what do they separate?
    primary fissure separating rostral and caudal lobes; caudolateral fissure separates caudal and flocculonodular lobes
  53. What are the cerebellar nuclei from medial to lateral?
    [medial] fastigial, interpositus, dentate [lateral]
  54. The ___________ is the first structure of the cerebellum that develops; it correlates with the ___________.
    archicerebellum; flocculonodular lobe
  55. The ___________ is the second part of the cerebellum to develop; it correlates to the ___________.
    paleocerebellum; rostral lobe
  56. The __________ is the final part of the cerebellum to develop; it correlates to the ___________.
    neocerebellum; caudal lobe
  57. What are the 3 histological layers of the cerebellum?
    [superficial] molecular, purkinje, granular [deep]
  58. What are the 3 fiber types of the cerebellum?
    climbing fibers, mossy fibers, parallel fibers
  59. Climbing fibers of the cerebellum go from the ________ to the _______ layer to __________.
    olivary complex; molecular; Purkinje dendrites
  60. Mossy fibers of the cerebellum have _________ origin in the __(2)__ and go to _________.
    widespread; brainstem and spinal cord; granule cells
  61. Parallel fibers of the cerebellum go from _________ to _________.
    granule cells; Purkinje cells
  62. Mossy fibers of the cerebellum form the _____________, which is communication b/w the cerebellum and ___________; mossy fibers also contribute to __(2)__.
    pontocerebellar tract; pyramidal motor system; spinocerebellar system and vestibulocerebellar tract
  63. What 4 tracts are cerebellar afferent tracts?
    spinocerebellar tract, vestibulocerebellar tract, olivocerebellar tract, pontcerebellar tract
  64. The spinocerebellar and vestibulocerebellar tracts carry ___________ stimuli to the cerebellum through ___________.
    proprioceptive; mossy fibers
  65. The olivocerebellar tract brings ____________ to the cerebellum through ____________.
    extrapyramidal motor information; climbing fibers
  66. The pontocerebellar tract brings ___________ to the cerebellum through _________.
    pyramidal motor information; mossy fibers
  67. The middle and caudal peduncles generally carry _________ fibers.
  68. Cerebellar efferent fibers come from ________, go to __________, which send fibers through the ___________ to reach brainstem and spinal cord.
    purkinje cells; deep cerebellar nuclei; rostral peduncle
  69. The flocculonodular lobe is aka the __________; it coordinates... (2)
    vestibulocerebellum; equilibrium and conjugate eye movement
  70. The rostral lobe of the cerebellum is aka the ___________; it coordinates... (3)
    spinocerebellum; muscle tone, posture, and stereotypes unconscious movement
  71. The caudal lobe of the cerebellum is aka the __________; it coordinates... (2)
    pontocerebellum; voluntary planned movement and highly skilled movements.
  72. What are signs of cerebellar disease? (6)
    usually ipsilateral, problems with rate/range/direction/force of movement, broad-based stance, lack of coordination, nystagmus/strabismus, head tilt
  73. The transverse cerebral fissure contains ____________.
    tentorium cerebelli (fold of dura mater in the fissure)
  74. The longitudinal cerebral fissure contains ___________.
    falx cerebriĀ (fold of dura mater in the fissure)
  75. The lateral rhinal sulcus of the cerebrum separates the _________ from the ____________.
    rhinencephalon; rest of cerebrum
  76. What is the significance of the cruciate sulcus of the cerebrum?
    landmark for pre- and post-cruciate gyri, where pyramidal motor cortex is located.
  77. What is lissencephaly?
    low number of folds and creases of the cerebrum, less neural tissue, disease
  78. The frontal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for...
    motor cortex and thought
  79. The parietal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for...
    sensory and somesthetic cortex
  80. The temporal lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for...
    auditory cortex, memory, emotions
  81. The occipital lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for...
    visual cortex
  82. What is the rostral commissure of the cerebrum associated with?
    associated with olfaction
  83. What is the corona radiata?
    fan-like structure that is the beginning of the projection fiber system
  84. In the cortex of the cerebrum, there are ____________ of cortical neurons.
    six layers
  85. What are the nuclei in the cerebrum?
    corpus striatum- caudate nucleus (afferent), lenticular nucleus (putamen (afferent), pallidum (efferent))
  86. What are the components of the extra-pyramidal system in the cerebrum? (4)
    cortical projection fibers, feedback circuits, basal ganglia output, descending output to spinal cord
  87. What are the 3 tracts from the extrapyramidal motor system in the brain to LMN?
    rubrospinal, medullary reticulospinal, pontine reticulospinal
  88. The rhinencephalon is part of the ___________; it is responsible for _____________.
    paleocortex; processing olfaction
  89. What are the 2 components of the rhinencephalon?
    lateral rhinal sulcus, olfactory pathway
  90. Describe the olfactory pathway from the primary synapse.
    olfactory bulb (primary axons synapse)--> olfactory tract--> piriform lobe (where smelling is perceived)
  91. The limbic system is responsible for...
    olfactory system, emotions, memory, pleasure, rage, fear, sexuality, mating, feeding behavior------> propagation and survival
  92. The grey matter of the limbic system includes portions of the... (6)
    temporal lobe, fornix, olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, mamillary body, hypothalamus
  93. The limbic system mediates __________ and ____________ responses.
    emotional behavior; visceral or autonomic responses
  94. The hippocampus gives rise to ___________, which turn into the ___________.
    fimbriae; fornix
  95. The hippocampus functions in ____________.
    short-term memory processing
  96. What is the site for rabies examination in a post-mortem brain?
    inclusion bodies in the hippocampus
  97. The hippocampus represents the ____________; it is the _____________ of the ____________, lying next to the ______________.
    archiocortex; internalized gyrus; cerebral cortex; fourth ventricle
  98. Projection fibers are those that...
    either originate (descending) or terminate (ascending) in the cerebral cortex.
  99. The corona radiata and internal capsule are formed by _____________.
    projection fibers
  100. What are 2 examples of commissural fibers?
    rostral commissure, corpus callosum
  101. The subcortical nuclei are aka... (2)
    basal ganglia, corpus striatum
  102. What are the basal ganglia/ nasal nuclei?
    lenticular nucleus, caudate nucleus
  103. The caudate and lenticular nuclei are separated by the ___________.
    internal capsule
  104. The basal ganglia/corpus striatum are associated with the ________________.
    extra-pyramidal motor system
  105. Afferent input to the basal nuclei synapses in the ____________; efferent output of the basal ganglia is transmitted by the ______________.
    putamen and caudate nucleus; fiber projections from the pallidum