A&P chapter 4

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A&P chapter 4
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2015-09-17 19:11:03
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  1. organic compaunds
    CONTAIN CARBON! are covalently bonded and are often large
  2. inorganic compounds
    DONT contain carbon

    ak.water, salts, and many bases and acids
  3. important properties of water
    high heat capacity (it takes a lot of heat before changing temp)

    polar solvent properties (dissolves polar molecules)

    reactivity( reactions in hydrolysis& dehydration

    cushioning(protects body
  4. acids
    any substance that INCREASES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (adds hydrogen)

    GIVES PROTONS
  5. bases
    any substance that REDUCES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (less hydrogen)

    RECEIVE PROTONS
  6. acids release____ therefore are ____donors
    hydrogen, proton
  7. bases release___ and are proton____
    HO-, acceptors
  8. acidic  solutions have_____ concentration and therefore have a ___ pH level
    higher H+, lower
  9. alkaline?
    bases
  10. alkiline solutions have_____ concentration and therefore have a ___ pH level
    lower H+, higher
  11. neutral solutions
    they have equal h+ and OH- concentrations
  12. buffers
    protect the pH levels. they try to keep it close to 7
  13. carbon has how man valence electrons?
    4
  14. biomolecules (organic compounds)
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins

    nucleic acids
  15. polymer
    many monomers
  16. 3 classes of polymers
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  17. dehydration synthesis
    • forms polymers
    • requires the input of energy (endorganic)
  18. hydrolysis
    • breaks polymers
    • releases energy (exorganic)
  19. carbohydrates contain?
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

    it's major function is to supply a source of cellular food (energy)
  20. carbohydrates monomers? and what can they be used for?
    • monosaccharides(simple sugars)
    • can be use directly by cells as fuel
  21. polysaccharides
    energy storage
  22. lipids contain what?
    carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (but the oxygen proportions in lipids is less than in carbohydrates
  23. who are hydrophobic? and what does that mean?
    lipids, they dont like water
  24. examples of lipids
    • triglycerides.
    • phospholipids
    • steroids
  25. what are lipids composed of?
    3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
  26. what are phospholipids composed of?
    modified triglycerides with 2 fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group
  27. phospholipids make most what?
    • membranes
    • they have a polar head and a non polar tail
  28. what are steroids composed of?
    flat molecules with four inter locking hydrocarbon rings
  29. what the difference between saturated fat and unsaturated fat?
    saturated- packs up tightly and clogs up arteries easily

    unsaturated- less tight
  30. fatty acids?
    saturated/unsaturated fats
  31. lipids found in body
    • neutral fats-under skin
    • phospholipids- cell membranes
    • steroid-
    • lipoproteins- transport fatty acids and chloesterol in the bloodstream
  32. amino acid contains
    building block pf proteins

    amino acid, a corboxyl group and a (R group)

    they form peptide bonds
  33. protein chain
    amino acids- peptide-polypeptide-protein
  34. primary structure
    chain of amino acids
  35. secondary structure
    folds and sheets
  36. tetiary structure
    3D structure
  37. carbohydrate chain
    monocaccharide- polysaccharide
  38. nucleic acid chain
    nucleotide- DNA/RNA
  39. what does the sequence of an amino acid chain do?
    determines how the protein will fold and therefore how it functions
  40. what is sickle-cell disease?
    a single amino acid substitution in the protein (#6)  it makes hemoglobin go wrong and it doesnt carry as much oxygen through the blood
  41. fibrous proteins
    extended and strandlike proteins
  42. globular proteins
    spherical proteins
  43. enzymes
    they act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions (they are not consumed during chemical reactions so they just cycle)
  44. skeleton of a protein
    micro-filament
  45. membrane receptor and cell signaling
    hormones that bind to channel& and activates signaling pathways
  46. motor molecules
    little legs on cells that make them move
  47. cofactor
    helper molecule
  48. enzymes...
    lower activation energy
  49. substrate
    what goes into the enzyme that is going to catalized
  50. denaturation
    a cell coming apart( unfolding)
  51. renaturation
    a cell coming back together (from unfolding)
  52. what can cause denaturation?
    change in temperature or change in pH levels (it can be reversed)
  53. what are nucleic acids composed of?
    C,H,O,N, and P
  54. what is a nucleic acid's structureal unit?
    nucleotide
  55. polymerization?
    the process of making polymers
  56. DNA is the one that only contains?
    thymine
  57. RNA is the only one that contains?
    uracil
  58. genes do what?
    program the amino acid to sequence of polypeptides(proteins)
  59. DNA is ___ into ___ which are ___
    copied, RNA, nucleic acids in actions

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