A&P chapter 4
Card Set Information
A&P chapter 4
CONTAIN CARBON! are covalently bonded and are often large
ak.water, salts, and many bases and acids
important properties of water
high heat capacity (it takes a lot of heat before changing temp)
polar solvent properties (dissolves polar molecules)
reactivity( reactions in hydrolysis& dehydration
any substance that INCREASES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (adds hydrogen)
any substance that REDUCES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (less hydrogen)
acids release____ therefore are ____donors
bases release___ and are proton____
acidic solutions have_____ concentration and therefore have a ___ pH level
higher H+, lower
alkiline solutions have_____ concentration and therefore have a ___ pH level
lower H+, higher
they have equal h+ and OH- concentrations
protect the pH levels. they try to keep it close to 7
carbon has how man valence electrons?
biomolecules (organic compounds)
3 classes of polymers
requires the input of energy (endorganic)
releases energy (exorganic)
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
it's major function is to supply a source of cellular food (energy)
carbohydrates monomers? and what can they be used for?
can be use directly by cells as fuel
lipids contain what?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (but the oxygen proportions in lipids is less than in carbohydrates
who are hydrophobic? and what does that mean?
lipids, they dont like water
examples of lipids
what are lipids composed of?
3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
what are phospholipids composed of?
modified triglycerides with 2 fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group
phospholipids make most what?
they have a polar head and a non polar tail
what are steroids composed of?
flat molecules with four inter locking hydrocarbon rings
what the difference between saturated fat and unsaturated fat?
saturated- packs up tightly and clogs up arteries easily
unsaturated- less tight
lipids found in body
neutral fats-under skin
phospholipids- cell membranes
lipoproteins- transport fatty acids and chloesterol in the bloodstream
amino acid contains
building block pf proteins
amino acid, a corboxyl group and a (R group)
they form peptide bonds
amino acids- peptide-polypeptide-protein
chain of amino acids
folds and sheets
nucleic acid chain
what does the sequence of an amino acid chain do?
determines how the protein will fold and therefore how it functions
what is sickle-cell disease?
a single amino acid substitution in the protein (#6) it makes hemoglobin go wrong and it doesnt carry as much oxygen through the blood
extended and strandlike proteins
they act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions (they are not consumed during chemical reactions so they just cycle)
skeleton of a protein
membrane receptor and cell signaling
hormones that bind to channel& and activates signaling pathways
little legs on cells that make them move
lower activation energy
what goes into the enzyme that is going to catalized
a cell coming apart( unfolding)
a cell coming back together (from unfolding)
what can cause denaturation?
change in temperature or change in pH levels (it can be reversed)
what are nucleic acids composed of?
C,H,O,N, and P
what is a nucleic acid's structureal unit?
the process of making polymers
DNA is the one that only contains?
RNA is the only one that contains?
genes do what?
program the amino acid to sequence of polypeptides(proteins)
DNA is ___ into ___ which are ___
copied, RNA, nucleic acids in actions