Ecology- chapter 1

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VaibhavValecha
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Ecology- chapter 1
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2015-09-19 18:09:42
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Ecology- chapter 1
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  1. Ecosystem
    All the interacting parts of a biological community and the community's environment.

    Eg. Grasslands, Tropical Rain Forests, and Deserts.
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    A ecosystem that is able to stand pressure and give support to a variety of organisms

    All organisms require a sustainable ecosystem to survive
  3. Biotic
    Biotic characteristics includes all the living or recently living parts of an ecosystem.

    • Examples: Plants- Producer
    • Animals- Consumers
    • Microorganism-bacteria- Consumer
    • Fish- Consumer
  4. Abiotic
    The nonliving parts of an ecosystem that organism need to survive

    Essential Abiotic characteristics: Air Oxygen, water light, nutrients, and soil
  5. Lithosphere
    Hard part of earth's surface

     Includes rocks, the ground and soil.
  6. Hydrosphere
    Liquid part of earth's surface

    Includes saltwater in oceans, lakes and seas.
  7. Atmosphere
    Layer of gases above earth's surface; includes air.
  8. Biosphere
    Living parts of earth's surface; not separate other abiotic spheres includes life in soil, water and air.

    eg. oceans, deserts and forests
  9. Nutrients
    Components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow.

    eg. carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water.
  10. Eutrophication
    -when nutrient levels in the ecosystem increase leading to an increase in population of primary producers.

    -Pushes it beyond the normal nutrients cycle and sustainability.
  11. Photosynthesis
    • The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy to be used as food.

    Word equation: carbon dioxide + water( in the presence of light and a chlorophyll needed) ------> Glucose+ water
  12. Trophic Level
    Categories of the organisms defined by how the organism gains energy

    The food chain can be used to show the trophic level of an ecosystem

    • Example:
    • -1st trophic level are primary producers such as plants
    • -2nd trophic level are primary consumers (Herbivores)such as insects
    • -3rd trophic level are second consumers (carnivore) such as birds
    • -4th trophic level are the top carnivores such as an Eagle
  13. Biomass
    The total mass of living organisms in a defined group of area
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    A measure of the amount of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next trophic level.

    The percentage is always less than 100% because organisms use most energy for life functions (10% based on)

    Biomass decreases from one level of the trophic level to the next because not all the organism is eaten, not everything is digested and energy is lost by heat
  15. Bioaccumulation
    A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by a rate greater than they are eliminated.
  16. Biomagnification
    • Is a process that is related to bioaccumulation. Biomagnification is the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one level trophic level to another.
  17. Cellular Respiration 
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules in the presence of oxygen. Carbohydrates mostly. Used by most living organisms and is essential to life.

    Word equation: glucose+oxygen---> carbon dioxide+water+energy
  18. Fermentation
    This is a process that releases energy from organic molecules in the lack of oxygen. Organisms such as bacteria and some fungi use fermentation to release the energy in glucose.
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    These are atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere.

    eg. Water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane
  20. Greenhouse effect
    These are atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere.
  21. Acid precipitation
    • Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids.

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