Zoonotic- Part 2
Card Set Information
Zoonotic- Part 2
vetmed zoonotic diseases
What are components of innate immunity? (3)
anatomic (skin, tears, mucous membranes), physiologic (complement), phagocytic (neutrophils, NK cells)
What are the components of the adaptive immune system? (3)
specific recognition of pathogens, B cells, T cells
_______ are antibodies associated with early response; _______ are associated with late response; _______ is used for parasites; ________ is on mucosal surfaces.
IgM; IgG; IgE; IgA
Antibodies are primarily responsible for responding to... (4)
extracellular bacteria, enteric bacteria, viruses, parasites
T cells interact with _________; they secrete _______; they are responsible for responding to... (4)
APC; cytokines; viruses, mycobacteria, fungi, intracellular bacteria
What virus caused massive die offs of birds at the Bronx zoo and encephalitis and death in elderly patients?
West Nile Virus
What did the NVSL find when the Bronx zoo vet sent samples of dead birds?
flavivirus- West Nile Virus
Where was West Nile Virus originally endemic to?
africa, middle east, australia
Describe the life cycle of Wast Nile Virus.
cycles b/w mosquitos and birds; some infected bird develop high levels of virus--> mosquito bites bird and pick up virus--> mosqutioes can transfer virus to other birds, horses, humans
What are the dead end hosts of West Nile Virus?
horses and humans (can't get high enough levels to shed virus)
What form of Salmonella is zoonotic?
Salmonella are ________ bacteria.
What are the modes of transmission of Salmonella? (3)
feco-oral, food borne, direct human to animal transmission
Where did an outbreak of Salmonella occur in young children?
animal exhibits at Pacific Science Center; feces and feeds tested positive
What were the interventions put in place at the Pacific Science Center to prevent further Salmonella infections? (3)
installed hand-washing stations, sanitized tables and toys, depopped exhibit and bought more animals
What animal caused a Salmonella outbreak at the Denver Zoological Gardens?
komodo dragons- animal positive and barriers positive
What pets have been a major source of Salmonella infections?
small turtles, bearded dragons, poultry, hedgehogs, other reptiles
What is the mode of transmission of Salmonella?
feco-oral, handling of infected reptiles
What are the clinical signs of Salmonellosis in humans? (3)
gastroenteritis, arthritis, septicemia
Zoonotic disease that is newly recognized or evolved.
Zoonotic disease that is already recognized but has an increased incidence or expansion in geographical, host, or vector range.
What are environmental factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (3)
climate change, host range, vector range
What are microbial factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (2)
genetic drift, acquisition of resistance
What are human risk factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (5)
increased population, increase in immunocompromised, urbanization, behaviors, global travel
SARS is a _________ that first emerged in _______.
What emerging zoonotic disease was brought from China to Hong Kong by a "superspreader"? What did that event precipitate?
SARS; WHO issued a global alert with the most stringent travel restrictions in history
When is an epidemic considered contained?
no new cases for 2 full incubation periods
What animals were involved with the re-emergence of SARS?
asian palm civets (eaten in china), chinese horseshoe bat
MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) has zoonotic transmission from _________.
What are the prevention and control measures for MERS?
early identification, isolation, infection control
What are the reservoirs for Ebola?
How is Ebola transmitted?
contact with blood, fluids, meat of infected animal/person
Ebola is an _________ virus, therefore it should be easy to kill; however, it is very effective at human-to-human transmission because...
enveloped; virus present in enormously high quantities in blood, body fluids of symptomatic patients
Why was the recent Ebola outbreak so severe? (3)
lack of experience with EV, unprepared health systems, movement into large urban centers
The greatest disease burden occurs with __________ transmission of SARS, MERS, and Ebola.
What oral pathogens have the highest consequences after a dog or cat bite? (4)
Capnocytophagia, Pasteurella, Bergeyella, MRSA
Cat scratch disease is caused by __________.
Rat-Bite Fever is caused by __________.
Streptobacillus moniliformis (Spirillum minus in Asia)
Most malpractice claims are due to ___________.
What are the types of civil actions?
tort (intentional actions), negligence, professional negligence
What are the ABC's of veterinary malpractice (plaintiff must prove these to win case)?
Breach of the duty
Existence of a defense
Action causing the accident-injury generally does not happen without negligence.
res ipsa loquitur
Responsible for the acts of those you supervise.
doctrine of respondeat superior
________ can be used as evidence.