Zoonotic- Part 2

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
308045
Filename:
Zoonotic- Part 2
Updated:
2015-09-17 23:06:36
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vetmed zoonotic
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vetmed zoonotic diseases
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  1. What are components of innate immunity? (3)
    anatomic (skin, tears, mucous membranes), physiologic (complement), phagocytic (neutrophils, NK cells)
  2. What are the components of the adaptive immune system? (3)
    specific recognition of pathogens, B cells, T cells
  3. _______ are antibodies associated with early response; _______ are associated with late response; _______ is used for parasites; ________ is on mucosal surfaces.
    IgM; IgG; IgE; IgA
  4. Antibodies are primarily responsible for responding to... (4)
    extracellular bacteria, enteric bacteria, viruses, parasites
  5. T cells interact with _________; they secrete _______; they are responsible for responding to... (4)
    APC; cytokines; viruses, mycobacteria, fungi, intracellular bacteria
  6. What virus caused massive die offs of birds at the Bronx zoo and encephalitis and death in elderly patients?
    West Nile Virus
  7. What did the NVSL find when the Bronx zoo vet sent samples of dead birds?
    flavivirus- West Nile Virus
  8. Where was West Nile Virus originally endemic to?
    africa, middle east, australia
  9. Describe the life cycle of Wast Nile Virus.
    cycles b/w mosquitos and birds; some infected bird develop high levels of virus--> mosquito bites bird and pick up virus--> mosqutioes can transfer virus to other birds, horses, humans
  10. What are the dead end hosts of West Nile Virus?
    horses and humans (can't get high enough levels to shed virus)
  11. What form of Salmonella is zoonotic?
    Nontyphoidal Salmonella
  12. Salmonella are ________ bacteria.
    gram negative
  13. What are the modes of transmission of Salmonella? (3)
    feco-oral, food borne, direct human to animal transmission
  14. Where did an outbreak of Salmonella occur in young children?
    animal exhibits at Pacific Science Center; feces and feeds tested positive
  15. What were the interventions put in place at the Pacific Science Center to prevent further Salmonella infections? (3)
    installed hand-washing stations, sanitized tables and toys, depopped exhibit and bought more animals
  16. What animal caused a Salmonella outbreak at the Denver Zoological Gardens?
    komodo dragons- animal positive and barriers positive
  17. What pets have been a major source of Salmonella infections?
    small turtles, bearded dragons, poultry, hedgehogs, other reptiles
  18. What is the mode of transmission of Salmonella?
    feco-oral, handling of infected reptiles
  19. What are the clinical signs of Salmonellosis in humans? (3)
    gastroenteritis, arthritis, septicemia
  20. Zoonotic disease that is newly recognized or evolved.
    emerging zoonoses
  21. Zoonotic disease that is already recognized but has an increased incidence or expansion in geographical, host, or vector range.
    re-emerging zoonoses
  22. What are environmental factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (3)
    climate change, host range, vector range
  23. What are microbial factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (2)
    genetic drift, acquisition of resistance
  24. What are human risk factors for (re-)emerging zoonoses? (5)
    increased population, increase in immunocompromised, urbanization, behaviors, global travel
  25. SARS is a _________ that first emerged in _______.
    coronavirus; Asia
  26. What emerging zoonotic disease was brought from China to Hong Kong by a "superspreader"? What did that event precipitate?
    SARS; WHO issued a global alert with the most stringent travel restrictions in history
  27. When is an epidemic considered contained?
    no new cases for 2 full incubation periods
  28. What animals were involved with the re-emergence of SARS?
    asian palm civets (eaten in china), chinese horseshoe bat
  29. MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) has zoonotic transmission from _________.
    camels
  30. What are the prevention and control measures for MERS?
    early identification, isolation, infection control
  31. What are the reservoirs for Ebola?
    bats
  32. How is Ebola transmitted?
    contact with blood, fluids, meat of infected animal/person
  33. Ebola is an _________ virus, therefore it should be easy to kill; however, it is very effective at human-to-human transmission because...
    enveloped; virus present in enormously high quantities in blood, body fluids of symptomatic patients
  34. Why was the recent Ebola outbreak so severe? (3)
    lack of experience with EV, unprepared health systems, movement into large urban centers
  35. The greatest disease burden occurs with __________ transmission of SARS, MERS, and Ebola.
    human-to-human
  36. What oral pathogens have the highest consequences after a dog or cat bite? (4)
    Capnocytophagia, Pasteurella, Bergeyella, MRSA
  37. Cat scratch disease is caused by __________.
    Bartonella
  38. Rat-Bite Fever is caused by __________.
    Streptobacillus moniliformis (Spirillum minus in Asia)
  39. Most malpractice claims are due to ___________.
    communication failure
  40. What are the types of civil actions?
    tort (intentional actions), negligence, professional negligence
  41. What are the ABC's of veterinary malpractice (plaintiff must prove these to win case)?
    • A duty
    • Breach of the duty
    • Causation
    • Damage
    • Existence of a defense
  42. Action causing the accident-injury generally does not happen without negligence.
    res ipsa loquitur
  43. Responsible for the acts of those you supervise.
    doctrine of respondeat superior
  44. ________ can be used as evidence.
    Habit

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