Zoonotic Disease- Parasites

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Zoonotic Disease- Parasites
2015-09-18 00:38:12
vetmed zoonotic

vetmed zoonotic
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  1. What stage of Toxocara canis poses a zoonotic risk?
    larval stages that undergo somatic migration, larvated eggs
  2. Which roundworms of dogs and cats are zoonotic?
    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Baylisascaris
  3. A potential consequence of nematode infection in humans.
    ocular larval migran- blindness
  4. What are zoonotic characteristics of roundworms? (3)
    are not infectious in freshly passed feces, pups/kittens infected at birth, once infectious difficult to destroy
  5. Baylisascaris infects ________.
  6. Baylisascaris infects young by ____________; it infects older animals by ______________.
    ingestion of eggs; ingestion of L3 in rodents
  7. What roundworm has resistant eggs?
  8. What domestic species can serve as a DH for Baylisascaris?
  9. When Baylisascaris undergoes somatic migration (NOT in raccoon), larvae...
    get bigger and bigger as they migrate.
  10. How do you kill the resistant eggs of Baylisascaris?
    boiling water, blow torch
  11. What are the consequences of larval migration of Baylisascaris? (5)
    larvae get bigger and bigger, mechanical damage, tissue necrosis, granulomatous inflammation, eosinophils
  12. How do you prevent roundworm infections?
    toxocara: deworm, pick up fresh feces; baylisascaris: avoid raccoons
  13. Cutaneous larval migrans is caused by _________.
    ancyclostoma (hookworm)
  14. What is the major mode of transmission of ancyclostoma in dogs?
  15. How do humans get ancyclostoma?
    eggs develop to L3 to be infectious
  16. What is a feature of ancylostoma after infection?
    encystment and slow larval leak to GI tract
  17. How do you prevent ancyclostoma infection?
    deworm, remove fresh feces
  18. How do you prevent infection with trichinella?
    deworm, cook meat
  19. How is trichinella transmitted?
    ingestion of undercooked meat
  20. Trichinella has been transmitted through __________ in the USA.
    ingestion of undercooked pork
  21. Angiostrongylus is the _________.
    rat lung worm
  22. Angiostrongylus has a _______ intermediate host.
  23. What are the consequences of aberrant host infection with Angiostrongylus?
    eosinophilic meningoencephalitis
  24. How do you prevent infection with Angiostrongylus?
    don't eat raw snails, raw shrimp, or greens contaminated with them
  25. Describe the disease caused by Giardia in animals and humans. (4)
    diarrhea, greasy stool, gas, vomiting
  26. What is similar b/w asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs with Giardia?
    both have Giardia and BOTH SHED PARASITE
  27. How do you collect samples to test for Giardia?
    collect stool samples several days in a row due to intermittent shedding
  28. What are the stages of Giardia?
    cyst and trophozoite
  29. What stage of Giardia is resistant?
    cysts (but they are susceptible to desiccation and direct sunlight)
  30. How do you prevent infection with Giardia?
    avoid ingestion of untreated water, practice good hygiene
  31. What is the direct host of Toxoplasma?
  32. What is the intermediate host of Toxoplasma?
    all mammals
  33. Previous exposure to Toxoplasma means...
    resistent to new infections (IgG seropositive), reactivation during immunosuppressive events
  34. Why is Toxoplasma recrudescent during immunosuppressive events?
    latent tissue cyst remains dormant due to normal immune system; loss of normal immune system allows it to replicate and cause CNS disease
  35. When is Toxoplasma most dangerous to pregnant women?
    primary infection while pregnant (test cat to see if IgM or IgG seropositive or negative, make husband clean litter box, pick feces every day)
  36. What is a possible consequence of primary infection with Toxoplasma during pregnancy?
    • mother: ocular disease
    • child: learning problems, CNS disease, disabilities
  37. What stage of Toxoplasma is shed in the feces? What is the significance of this?
    unsporulated- not infective for ~24hrs (clean litter box every day!)
  38. What disease does Toxoplasma cause in cats (DH)?
  39. What coccidia are immediately infective when shed in the feces?
  40. What are the modes of transmission of Toxoplasma?
    sporulated oocysts (cat poo), undercooked meat with tissue cysts, ingestion of contaminated vegetables (cat pooped in your garden)
  41. How many crypto organisms are required to initiate infection?
    5-10 oocytes
  42. What are host species for crypto?
    all mammals
  43. What are the modes of transmission of crypto?
    feco-oral of sporulated oocyte, auto-infection by rupture of thin-walled oocytes
  44. Describe the disease caused by crypto in animals. (3)
    anorexia, watery diarrhea, tenesmus
  45. What is the incubation period for crypto infection in humans?
    1-12 days, generally self-limiting
  46. Crypto can be lethal in ___________.
    immunosuppressed individuals
  47. How do you prevent and treat infection with crypto?
    hygiene, supportive treatment
  48. What is the DH of cestodes?
  49. What stage of Echinococcus is infective to humans?
    hyatid cyst
  50. Echinococcus granulosus has a _________ larval cestode stage.
    unilocular hyatid cyst
  51. Echinococcus multilocularis has a _________ larval cestode stage.
    multilocular hyatid cyst (buds off)
  52. What stage of cestodes is infective?
    larval cestode
  53. Why is there not an enormous immune response against hyatid cysts of Echinococcus?
    it has a fibrous capsule that walls it off
  54. What is the cause of pathology associated with hyatid cysts of Echinococcus?
    travels to liver, space occupying lesion
  55. What are the modes of transmission of Echinococcus granulosus?
    eggs in feces, alveolar cyst
  56. What are the modes of transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis?
    eggs in feces, exogenous cysts
  57. How do you prevent infection with Echinococcus?
    can't see in feces- hygiene, deworm
  58. What is the difference between Echinococcus and Taenia grossly?
    can't see Echinococcus (microscopic), can see taenia
  59. The cysticerci of Taenia solium have a trophism for _________.
    human CNS
  60. Humans are a ______ of Taenia solium.
    DH or IH
  61. What is the IH of Taenia sainata?
  62. Describe disease caused by Taenia solium in humans.
    taeniosis (GI discomfort), CNS- seizures, epilepsy, headaches, blindness, death
  63. DH of Diplydium caninum.
    dog, human
  64. IH of Diplydium caninum.