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sum of all this internal chemical (anabolism, catabolism, & excretion).
- Anabolism def: complex molecules formed from simpler ones
- Catabolism def: simple molecules form complex ones
- Excretion def: waste & toxins separate waste during metabolic processes.
ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions
2 major processes of development
- 1) differentiation (transformation of cells w/no specialized function into ones w/a task.
- 2) growth (increase in size).
dynamic equalibrium def
balanced change where there is a certain set point
negative feedback def:
Positive feedback def:
- negative feedback def: process by which the body senses change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it.
- Positive feedback def: self-amplifying cycle leading to greater change
- -widening of the blood vessels. When blood vessels dilate, warm blood flows closer to the body surface and loses heat to surroundings.
- -sweating will occur to loose more heat
- -narrowing of blood vessels to retain warm blood deeper in the body to reduce heat loss.
- -shivering will occur to generate more heat
terms coined from names of people
words comosed of the first letter for first few letters of a serios of words
How do x-rays work?
radiation is absorbed by dense tissues (bone, teeth, tumors), and rediopaque substances can be injected to absorb x-rays through injection or ingestion.
How does Computed Tomography (CT) scans work?
slices of low intensity x-ray images
How do Positron Emission Tomography scans work (PET)
radioactively labeled glucose is injected (electron-like particles meet positrons to annihilate each other giving off gamma rays). Color images show which tissues are using the most glucose at the moment. They can show metabolic states like damage to heart tissues by a lack of glucose uptake.
How do Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) work:
radio waves cause hydrogen atoms to absorb additional energy and align in different directions. Radio waves are turned off to allow hydrogen atoms to realign themselves to the magnetic field, giving off their excess energy at different rates depending on the tissue type.
How do sonographs work?
high frequency ultrasound waves can evaluate bone or lungs, fetal age, position, development.
standing on feet, palms facing forward.
- separates front from back of body
- AKA coronal plane.
Separates top from bottom
- separates left from right side of body
- AKA: median saggital
toward the front of the body
Closer to the front (e.g. the pituitary is anterior to the hypothalamus).
Closer to the back (e.g. the brain is posterior to the eyes).