Repro- Males, Male Patho, BSE

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Mawad
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308092
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Repro- Males, Male Patho, BSE
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2015-09-18 21:37:06
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vetmed repro
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vetmed repro males
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  1. __________ represent the undifferentiated gonads.
    Genital ridges
  2. The gubernaculum is an extension of _________ in the _________; it grows in the vaginal cavity, creating __________ to....
    peritoneum; inguinal ring; gravitational pull; pull the testes to the base of the scrotum
  3. What are the 4 layers of the tunica albuginea?
    tunica vaginalis, vascular layer, dense connective tissue, smooth muscle
  4. The stratified epithelium of the seminiferous tubules from base to lumen is...
    spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
  5. What kind of cells are in the interstitium of the testicular parenchyma?
    connective tissue, leydig cells
  6. What are the functions of the accessory sex glands? (3)
    nourish and activate spermatozoa, clear urethral tract, vehicle for sperm
  7. What accessory sex gland(s) are present in the dog?
    prostate
  8. What accessory sex gland(s) are present in the ruminants?
    ampullae, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, prostate
  9. What accessory sex gland(s) are present in the horse?
    ampullae, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, prostate
  10. What accessory sex gland(s) are present in the boar?
    ampullae, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, prostate
  11. What accessory sex gland(s) are present in the cat?
    ampullae, prostate, bulbourethral glands
  12. What type of animals have a fibrous penis?
    boar, ruminants
  13. What type of animals have a vascular penis?
    horse, carnivores, primates
  14. What type of tissue is directly around the penile urethra?
    corpus spongiosum
  15. What are the 2 types of erectile tissue?
    corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosum
  16. LH acts on the __________, causing them to secrete _________.
    leydig cells; testosterone
  17. FSH act on the ___________, which function in __________.
    sertoli cells; spermatogenesis
  18. __________ provides negative feedback for FSH by acting on __________.
    Inhibin; sertoli cells
  19. __________ provides positive feedback for FSH by acting on __________.
    Activin; sertoli cells
  20. Sertoli cells produce _________, which increases _________ in the seminiferous tubules.
    ABP; testosterone conc
  21. What are the 3 stages of spermatogenesis?
    spermatocytogenesis, spermatidogenesis, spermiogenesis
  22. Spermatocytogenesis is the stage that transitions _________ to __________.
    Spermatogonia; spermatocytes
  23. Spermatidogenesis is the stage that transitions __________ to ___________.
    secondary spermatocytes; spermatids
  24. Spermiogenesis is the stage that transitions ___________ to ___________.
    spermatids; spermatozoa
  25. The first meiotic division of sperm production takes place after the formation of ___________.
    primary spermatocytes
  26. _________ undergo the second meiotic division and become ________.
    Secondary spermatocytes; spermatids
  27. The acrosome covers the __________ on the ________ of the sperm.
    nucleus; head
  28. What is the purpose of the acrosome?
    necessary for penetration of the zona pellucida
  29. What happens during loss of cytoplasm during sperm formation?
    condensation of the cytoplasm around the tail piece
  30. Testicular hypertrophy is ____________ that is usually caused by ___________.
    increasing in cell size; compensatory processes
  31. What is the most common cause of testicular hypoplasia? What are some less common causes? (2)
    cryptorchid; Klinefelter's syndrome, polled goats
  32. Testicular degeneration is _________; the cause is usually ________ to the testicle; how does it appear grossly?
    atrophy; external; firm, disproportionately large epididymis
  33. How do you discern testicular hypoplasia from atrophy?
    very difficult without context
  34. Testicular inflammation is usually __________; significant causes include... (3)
    epididymitis; Brucella abortus in bulls, Brucella canis in dogs, coliforms due to ascending infection in dogs
  35. Causes of __________ can cause circulatory disturbances in the testes.
    systemic vasculitis
  36. Etiology of inflammation of the testicular a. in horses, bulls, and dogs?
    • horse: strongyle migration, equine arteritis
    • bull: malignant catarrhal fever
    • dogs: beagle pain syndrome
  37. Testicular torsion is more common in _________, except in the horse, in which it causes _________.
    cryptorchid; colic
  38. What are the 3 main types of testicular tumors? What is one less common testicular tumor?
    interstitial cell tumors, seminoma, sertoli cell tumor; teratoma
  39. Interstitial cell tumors of the testicles are aka __________; they are ________ malignant; grossly, they appear...
    leydig cell tumors; rarely; yellow-tan, well-demarcated, soft, round
  40. Seminomas are derived from ____________; they arise from within the ___________; they are ________ malignant; grossly, they appear...
    germinal cells of the testes (spermatogonia); seminiferous tubules; rarely; white-grey, glistening, soft
  41. Sertoli cell tumors are aka __________; cells are packed into ____________ organized by ____________; grossly, they appear...
    sustenacular tumors; islands of oval and spindle cells; fibrous connective tissue; firm and white
  42. What is the most common tumor in cryptorchids?
    sertoli cell tumors
  43. What is the only species in which you really see teratomas?
    horses
  44. What is a primary sperm granuloma?
    blind ended epididymal ducts that rupture following accumulation of spermatozoa
  45. Trapped embryonic tubular remnants that can cause compression on adjacent structures.
    retention cysts
  46. Almost all species develop epididymitis through the __________.
    ascending route
  47. Secondary sperm granulomas often occur as a result of ____________.
    epididymitis
  48. Acute epididymitis manifests as...
    increased size and dissymmetry.
  49. Chronic epididymitis manifests as...
    small, firm, and nodular.
  50. What are 2 causes of epididymitis in dogs?
    Brucella canis, ascending E. coli infection
  51. What are infectious causes of epididymitis in small ruminants? (3)
    Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus
  52. What is an infectious cause of epididymitis in bulls?
    Brucella abortus
  53. Vesicular adenitis is common in the ________; it is readily diagnosed via ___________; an infectious cause of inflammation of the seminal vesicles is _________.
    bull; rectal palpation; truporella pyogenes
  54. Prostatitis is usually caused by...
    ascending urinary tract infection.
  55. Prostatic hyperplasia is common in __(2)__; on palpation and US,the prostate is __________.
    bull, older dogs; enlarged by symmetrical
  56. What is the most common sex gland neoplasia?
    canine prostatic neoplasia
  57. Neoplasia in the prostate can arise from... (2)
    prostatic epithelium, transitional epithelium
  58. Prostatic neoplasia __________ metastasizes.
    frequently
  59. What 3 diseases often cause balanoposthitis?
    equine coital exanthema (equine herpesvirus 3), bovine herpes virus 1, Corynebacterium renale (sheep and goats)
  60. Transmissible fibropapilloma occurs in _______; the etiologic agent is _________.
    bulls; bovine papillomavirus 2
  61. What penile neoplasia occurs in horses?
    penile squamous cell carcinoma
  62. What is the goal of a BSE?
    test the POTENTIAL fertility of the stud
  63. What are you looking for on physical exam for BSE?
    identification, not lame (can mount), full vision (can see females in heat- mounting, standing), scrotum, prepuce, accessory sex glands, penis
  64. What are phimosis and paraphimosis?
    phimosis- can't exteriorize penis, paraphimosis- can't retract penis into prepuce
  65. Why do you examine for evidence of inflammation around the testicles/scrotum during a BSE?
    inflammation--> increased temperature--> decreased spermatogenesis
  66. What are potential consequences of low-hanging testicle and too tight of a scrotum?
    • hanging too low- can't keep warm in winter
    • too tight- kept too warm in summer
    • thermoregulation is essential to spermatogenesis
  67. What should you find on scrotal palpation? (4)
    freely moveable, "flexed-biceps" consistency, pronounced tail of epididymis (site of sperm storage), scrotal circumference
  68. The larger the bull's testicles,...
    the more fertile his daughters will be.
  69. In bulls, you measure the __________ of the scrotum; in stallions, you measure the __________.
    scrotal circumference; total scrotal width (not pendulous like a bull)
  70. What are 3 disorders that could prevent normal function/exteriorization of the penis?
    persistent frenulum, cork-screw, diverticulum
  71. What parameters are you evaluating when you collect semen? (5)
    volume, color, concentration, gross motility, individual motility, morphology
  72. Primary defects in sperm morphology are related to ________; they include... (5)
    spermatogenesis; head defects, acrosome defects, proximal droplets, mid-piece defects, tightly coiled tail
  73. Secondary defects in sperm morphology are related to __________; they include... (3)
    maturation and transport; distal droplet, bent tail, detached heads
  74. What are the 3 possible results of a BSE?
    satisfactory potential breeder, unsatisfactory potential breeder, questionable/classification deferred
  75. If the male is able to meet minimum criteria.
    satisfactory potential breeder
  76. Conditions affecting the ability to meet minimum criteria are likely irreversible.
    unsatisfactory potential breeder
  77. Conditions affecting the ability to meet minimum criteria may improve with time and/or appropriate treatment/management.
    questionable/classification defferred

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