CSET: Cell Bio and Physio

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CSET: Cell Bio and Physio
2015-09-18 21:42:39

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  1. Compare prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses in terms of
    complexity, general structure, differentiation, and their requirements
    for growth and replication
    eukaryotic cells:has a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles generally quite biggerdivide by mitosis

    prokaryotic cells:no true nucleus or other membrane-bound organellessmallersimpler in structure reproduce by binary fission greater nutritional diversity

    viruses:smallest protein shell called capsid encloses the viral genome some have viral envelopes can only reproduce within a host cell
  2. Describe the stages of the cell cycle
    • interphase - longest stage, cell grows and copies its chromosomes:        G1 phase - first gap, cell grows         S phase - synthesis, continues to grow as it copies its chromosomes        G2 phase - second gap, grows more as it completes preparations for cell division
    • mitotic (M) phase - mitosis and cytokinesis, cell divides
  3. Diagram and describe the stages of the mitotic process

    prophase: chromatin condense and become visible, nucleoli disappear, mitotic spindle begins to form

    prometaphase: nuclear envelope fragments, microtubules extend from each centrosome toward the middle of the cell

    metaphase: longest stage, chromosomes lined up in the middle, spindle of microtubules is complete

    • anaphase: shortest, two sister chromatids of each pair separate and
    • begin moving toward opposite ends as their kinetochore microtubules
    • shorten

    • telophase: two daughter nuclei begin to form, nuclear envelopes begin
    • forming from fragments of parent cell's envelope, chromosomes become
    • less condenses
  4. Diagram the structure of the cell membrane and relate the structure to its function

    • tails of hydrocarbons change to adjust fluidity of membrane
    • membrane proteins have different structures according to their functions
    • the fluid mosaic model allows selective permeability
    • the hydrophobic core impedes the direct passage of ions and polar molecules
    • membranes are permeable to specific ions and polar molecules through transport proteins
  5. Explain methods of transport across the membrane
    diffusion: a substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated

    passive transport: diffusion of a substance across a membrane without an energy investment

    facilitated diffusion: passive transport aided by transport proteins, specific

    active transport: uses energy to move solutes against their gradients

    endocytosis: the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane

    exocytosis: the cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
  6. Explain the role of semipermeable membranes in cellular communication
    signal molecules bind to specific sites on receptor proteins embedded in the cell's plasma membrane
  7. Explain the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins
    ER secretes proteins produced by the ribosomes

    Golgi takes transport vesicles containing secretory proteins and modifies, stores and sends them to their destinations
  8. Explain the role of chloroplasts in obtaining and storing usable energy
    site where photosynthesis occurs

    light energy is converted into chemical energy
  9. Explain the role of mitochondria in cellular respiration
    • site of cellular respiration - process that generates ATP by extracting
    • energy fro sugars, fats and other fuels with the help of oxygen
  10. Explain the role of enzymes in chemical reactions and describe an
    experiment to tests the catalytic role of enzymes and factors that
    affect enzyme activity (eg levels of protein organization, temperature,
    ionic conditions, concentration of enzyme and substrate, pH)
    • enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering the activation energy
    • barrier by enabling the reactant molecules to absorb enough energy to
    • reach the transition state even at moderate temperatures
  11. Explain anabolic and catabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of
    macromolecules (eg polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids)
    anabolic - dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond

    catabolic - hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond
  12. Relate the complementary activity of major body systems (eg circulatory,
    digestive, respiratory, excretory) to provide cells with oxygen and
    nutrients and remove waste products
    • the digestive system takes in food and absorbs nutrients, which
    • it passes to the circulatory system to travel to the rest of the body

    the respiratory system take in O2 and takes out CO2 which travels through the circulatory system

    the excretory system removes waste from the circulatory system
  13. Explain and analyze the role of the nervous system in mediating
    communication between different parts of the body and the body's
    interactions with the environment
    the nervous system forms a communication and coordination network throughout the body

    the brain contains neurons that carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another

    each neuron communicates with other neurons to form networks
  14. Explain the homeostatic role of the major organs (eg kidneys, heart, brain)
    kidneys - regulates the amount of water and solutes in body-fluids

    heart - pumps blood throughout the body to bring cells oxygen and remove CO2

    • brain - hypothalamus in the brain is the homeostatic control center,
    • controls pituitary gland and regulates body temperature, blood pressure,
    • hunger, thirst, sex drive, fight or flight response
  15. Explain the function of feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine
    systems to regulate conditions in the body and predict the effects of
    disturbances of these systems
    feedback loops maintain homeostasis of normal levels of a product or normal levels of activity of production of a product

    disturbances of these systems can cause an over display or under display of the action of the hormone
  16. Explain the role of hormones (eg digestive, reproductive,
    osmoregulatory) in providing internal feedback mechanisms for
    homeostasis at the cellular level in whole organisms
    • hormones are produced through the endocrine system that cause an action
    • somewhere in the body and these hormones are regulated by the nervous
    • system or other hormones or level present in the blood
  17. Describe the role of the musculo-skeletal system in providing structure, support and locomotion to the human organism
    the skeletal system provides anchoring, support and protection

    • the
    • muscular system is made up of skeletal muscles that are attached to the
    • skeleton and produce body movement by interacting with the skeleton
  18. Explain the humoral response to infection
    the humoral response is the secretion of antibodies into the blood and lymph by effector B cells
  19. Compare cell mediated and humoral responses to infection
    humoral - involves antibodies secreted by effector B cells into the blood and lymph

    • cell mediated - effector T cells respond directly to antigens that have
    • already entered body cells, carried out directly by effector cells
    • rather than antigens
  20. Explain how vaccination works and distinguish among variables affecting success rate
    the immune system is confronted with a vaccine composed of a harmless variant of a disease-causing microbe or one of its parts

    the vaccine stimulates the immune system to mount defenses against these antigens and these defenses will also be effective against the actual pathogen because it has the same antigens
  21. Predict the consequences of a compromised immune system (eg AIDS)
    people with a compromised immune system are susceptible to infections that would not ordinarily cause a problem