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What energy source do all organic life require?
Which biologist help get rid of the 5 kingdoms? how?
- Carl Woese:
- 1. Monera was implied as any single cell organism. When it was sequenced, it revealed there were two types of prokaryotes: archae and bacteria
- - Looked similiar, but different genetics and biochemistry
T or F: fungi and plants do not share the same cell wall
What are the 3 domains?
- 1. Bacteria
- 2. Eukaryota
- 3. Archaea
What is punctuation equilibrium?
Has to do with extinction, which talks about higher forms flourishing after an extinction
Who showed that microorganisms can be transferred through the air. He also wanted surgical equipment to be sterilized.
What are the 3 kinds of isomers?
- 1. structural
- 2. Geometric: have double bonds, so the bond can't move
- 3. Stereoisomer: mirror images,
What is dehydration synthesis? Example?
- When H20 leaves to create a chemical rxn
- ex: fructose and glucose are monomers of each other.. An h20 will leave creating a chem rxn and bonding the two into a dissacharide
What is hydrolysis?
By adding H20, it will make polymers into monomers
What are functiions of nucleic acids?
- cell replication
- In ATP, it adds the phosphate
What bonds hold together DNA?
What 3 things do nucleotides need?
Phosphate, ribose/deoxyribose, amines
What are the functions of lipids?
- Long term energy storage
- needed for cell membranes
T or F: Prokaryotes have no membrane bound nucleus
T or F: Prok. shapes are based on cell walls
The flaura in our body can spread resistant genes through what structures in bacteria that has its own genetic material?
What can help a prokary. be resistant to phagocytosis?
What is the function of the slime layer?
he function of the slime layer is to protect the bacteria cells from environmental dangers such as antibiotics and desiccation. The slime layer also allows bacteria to adhere to smooth surfaces such as prosthetic medical devices and catheters.
what is a viroid? what kind of genetic material does it have? how does it replicate in the host?
- An infectious agent that consist only of RNA
- It uses the host cell's polymerase to use its RNA as a template for RNA synthesis.
What are parts of the enzyme?
- Cofactor: includes metal ions and variety of organic molecules.
- Coenzyme: when cofactor is loosely attached to the protein component
T or F: a ribozyme is a protein based enzyme. Where can it be found and its function?
False: In RNA at the ribosome, responsible for catalyzing peptide bond formatioin between amino acid residues during protein syntehsis.
What is a complex medium and why is it useful?
- Media containing ingredients of unknown chemical composition
- can grow different microorganisms
- - a particular microorganism requirements might not be known, so this can help ID it
What is a defined or synthetic medium?
medium in which all chemical components are known
What kind of bacteria can grow more rapidly at high hydrostatic pressures?
How is plaque assay done?
- Plates of different dilutions of virions in with host cells
- When host cell lyses, it releases its phages to infect nearby cells
- These creates plaques which can be counted
What is hemagglutination assay and how does it work?
- Animal viruses bind to surface of RBCs
- If ratio of virions > RBC, virions will join the RBC in clusters
- Using different dilutions of virions, you can see when glutination occurs at specific dilution ratios
What are the ways viruses can be directly counted? (3 ways)
- 1. Using electron microscope
- 2. Epiflourescence microscopy
- 3. Quantitative-polymerase
What two ways does a virion get released from a cell? What proteins are used?
- 1. Lysing of host using 2 types of proteins
- - Lysozyme: attacks the peptidoglycan of host cell wall
- - Holin: creates holes in host cell membrane
- 2. Budding: requently observed in enveloped viruses
- - Virus envlope proteins inserted into cell's plasma membrane
What are roles of late virion proteins? (3)
- 1. assembly of mature virions
- 2. involved in virion release from cell
- 3. some are nucleocapsid proteins
How do RNA viruses synthesize its genetic material?
- Calluylar organisms cannot replicate or synthesize mRNA from the virus RNA genome
- RNA virus must bring in nucleocapsids, the enzymes needed in synthesis
What source of energy do Active transport use? (primary, secondary, group translocation)
- Primary: ATP
- Secondary: Uses power from ion gradient to simultaneously transport a second molecule
- GT: PEP
What is group translocation used for? What is PTS?
- When a molecule is chemically modified to be brought into cell
- A type of group translocation: PTS transports sugars, while phosphyrating them, using PEP as energy
- 1. CO2 sole or principal biosynthetic carbon source
- 2. organic molecules from other organisms
- 3. the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth
What is carbon, energy, and electron source of:
- 1. Carbon: organic
- Energy: Light
- Electron: Organic electron donor
- 2. Carbon CO2
- Energy: Inorganic chemicals
- 3. Inorganic electron donor
What are electron sources of:
- 1. reduced inorganic molecules
- 2. Organic molecules
What is energy source of:
- 1. Light
- 2. Oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds