Linguistics 201 Vocab

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ECCammi
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Linguistics 201 Vocab
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2015-09-21 19:19:59
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LING201 Vocab
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A concise introduction to linguistics glossary
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  1. Accent
    A way of pronouncing words that identifies a speaker of a language as speaking differently from another speaker of the same language
  2. Acoustic Phonetics
    The study of the physical properties of sound
  3. Acronyms
    Words that are formed from the first letter or letters of more than one word
  4. Adaptors
    Kinesic behaviors that satisfy personal needs such as nervousness and are not meant to communicate
  5. Adjective phrase
    A phrase headed by an adjective but might also include an adjective modifier ( an element that adds a property to another lexical item). Adjective phrases modify nouns
  6. Adjuncts
    They are optional elements of a sentence. They add information that is not essential to the meaning of the predicate
  7. Adverb phrase
    A phrase that acts as a modifier of a verb.
  8. Affect displays
    Kinesic behaviors that communicate the real or faked emotional state of the communicator
  9. Affective meaning
    The meaning of an utterance that conveys the emotions of the speaker
  10. Affix
    A bound morpheme that can be added to a root
  11. African American English (AAE)
    One of several names for the varieties of English used in the African American community
  12. Agglutinating language
    A type of synthetic language in which each bound morpheme adds only one specific meaning to the root morpheme
  13. Allomorph
    A variation of morpheme
  14. Allophone
    A variation of a phoneme. Different allophones of a phoneme occur in different and predictable phonetic environments
  15. Alphabetic writing
    A system of writing in which each symbol, ideally, represents one specific phoneme
  16. Alveolar ridge
    The hard ridge behind the upper front teeth
  17. Analogy
    A process by which one form of a word (or other linguistic phenomenon) is used as the model for constructing another word or structure
  18. Analogous change
    The process whereby a dominant linguistic pattern in a language replaces exceptions to that pattern
  19. Analytic (or isolating) language
    A language in which most words are single morphemes
  20. Anomalous utterances
    Utterances that include words in which the semantic properties do not match
  21. Antonyms
    Words that are opposite in one of their semantic propertes
  22. Arbitrary
    IN relationship to language, means that features of language suck as words have no direct relationship to their meaning
  23. Archaeology
    The study of cultures through their discarded material
  24. Arguments
    THey are necessary elements of a sentence used to complete the meaning of the predicate
  25. Articulation
    The production of speech sounds by the movement of the speech organs
  26. Articulators
    The organs of speech
  27. Articulatory phonetics
    The study of how sounds are received by the ear and decoded by the brain
  28. Babbling
    The verbalization made by babies beginning at four to six months of age, which alternates consonants and vowels, such as bababa, gagaga, mamama
  29. Back formation
    The process of forming a new word through analogy by removing an affix or what appears to be an affix from that word
  30. BBC English
    The prestige variety of British English, so called because the British Broadcasting Corporation uses it.
  31. Binary system
    A classification system in which a feature is either present or absent
  32. Blend
    A word that is the result of the process of blending
  33. Blending
    The process of taking two or more words (compounding), clipping off parts of one or more of the words and them combining them
  34. Bound morpheme
    A meaningful grammatical unit that cannot occur alone
  35. Broad transcription (Phonetic transcription)
    A transcription that represents the idealized sounds, called phonemes, which are actually classes of sounds (made up of allophones) rather than physically real speech sounds
  36. Boca's aphasia
    A condition caused by damage to Boca's area of the brain and is characterized by problems in the production of speech and loss of some grammatical understanding of language
  37. Boca's area of the brain
    The are of the brain that controls the larynx, lips, tongue and other areas of theta digestive and respiratory systems involved with oral and facial fine motor skills in the production of speech.
  38. Calls
    Usually relatively short vocal signals that communicate a variety of messages. A variety of other species might respond to the calls of a given species
  39. Case
    Indicates the function. A characteristic of nouns, pronouns and adjectives (in some languages) that indicates their function within a sentence and their relationship to verbs and other words within the sentence
  40. Change in syllabicity
    Process that involves an alternative pronunciation f a syllable from an idealized pronunciation
  41. Cherology
    The term formerly used for the phonology of sign language
  42. Clever Hans effect
    The name give to the fact that a non-human's or human's behavior might be influenced or directed by subtle and often unintentional cues of others. In terms of experimentation these cues might reflect a researcher's expectations of what the results of the experiments should be
  43. Clipping
    The process of deleting a section of a word to create a shorter one
  44. Closed classes of words (aka function words)
    These types of words (such as prepositions and pronouns) the growth of which is very limited
  45. Closed form compound
    A compound word with no space or hyphen between the different roots
  46. Code
    A complex pattern of associations of the units of a communication system. In language those units could be sound units; meaningful units such as words; or meaningful units that are larger than words, such as phrases, clauses and sentences
  47. Code switching
    Deliberately switching from one manner or style to another
  48. Cognates
    Similar words in two or more different languages that were derived from a similar root language and may have similar meanings
  49. Cognitive functional linguistics
    Proposes that language acquisition is not a separate process of the child's development, with a distinct language acquisition device in the brain but rather a result of the child's general cognitive and intellectual development
  50. Color terminology
    The set of words in a language that describe segments of the color spectrum. Color terms in English include words such as red, blue, green, white and yellow
  51. Communication
    Any behavior affects the behavior of others by the transmission of information
  52. Comparative method
    A procedure that involves looking at similarities in languages to determine the degree of relationship between those languages and to reconstruct ancestral (proto-) languages
  53. Complement
    A element of an utterance that provides additional information about the head of a phrase
  54. Complementary distribution
    This means that each of a series of sounds occurs in different phonetic contexts and these sounds never contrast with each other. Phones that are in complementary distribution with each other are allophones of the same phoneme
  55. Complementary pairs
    Antonyms that express a binary relationship, such as the words male/female
  56. Complex sentences
    A sentence that contains a simple sentence and one or more dependent clauses
  57. Compound
    A word made up of two or more roots
  58. Compound-complex
    A sentence that has two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent cluase
  59. Compounding
    Creating a word with more than one root
  60. Compound sentence
    A sentence that is made up of at least two simple sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction; in writing, punctuation can substitute for the conjunction.
  61. Conditioned sound change
    A type of sound change that takes place only in certain phonological environments
  62. Connotation
    An affective meaning for a word or morpheme
  63. Consonant
    A speech sound that is produced when the air stream is contracted or stopped (and then released) at some place along its path before it escapes from the body
  64. Consonant cluster reduction
    The rule for reducing a consonant cluster to a single consonant. In SAE this rule applies to clusters in the word final position that are followed by a word beginning in a consonant; in AAE it occurs when the following words begin with either a vowel or consonant
  65. Constituents
    The units being combined to create larger syntactic constructions
  66. Constructivism
    Another name for the interactions hypothesis
  67. Contact sign
    A signing system that is analogous to oral pidgin languages and is used by signer and interpreter to communicate about specific things
  68. Contradictions
    Utterances in which the semantic properties of one word are in direct opposition to those of another
  69. Conversation repair
    The attempt to revise or expand an utterance when the speaker senses that the listener has not understod
  70. Co-occurrence restriction
    A limitation on the use of a morpheme
  71. Cooing
    The first verbal sounds that babies make, consists of sounds that are all vowels such as ahh, ohh, ehh, ihh
  72. Cooperative principle
    The principle that is the basis for the maxims of conversation and assumes that each person is trying in good faith to communicate and understand
  73. Copula
    The coupling verb and is most often forms of the verb "to be"
  74. Core vocabulary
    One hundred to two hundred words that represent concepts thought to be universal to all or most languages
  75. Corpus (plural corpora)
    A collection of linguistics information used to discover linguistics rules and principles
  76. Corpus callosum
    The main connection between the two hemispheres of the brain; it facilitates communication between them
  77. Créole language
    A language that is created when a pidgin language is passed on to the next generation and becomes the first language of a community
  78. Critical period hypothesis
    The language acquisition device ceases to function and the ability to acquire language with native fluency declines as childhood progresses, disappearing after the age of puberty
  79. Cultural anthropology
    The subfield of anthropology that studies the way people in various cultures live
  80. Cultural relativism
    A basic tenet of cultural anthropology; it is the idea that culture is consistent and comprehensible within itself
  81. Culture shock
    The disorientation and anxiety that occurs when social expectations are not met
  82. Daughter languages, mother languages and sister languages
    The types of relationships languages have in the family tree model of language relationships. Daughter languages are derived from a mother language and different daughter languages are referred as sister languages with respect to each other
  83. Decode
    To rest to a message in a way that reflects the reason that the sender encoded it
  84. Deep structure
    Refers to a highly abstract level of language that represents the basic meaning of a sentnce
  85. Deixis
    Refers to words that shift reference, that change meaning according to the context and/or the speaker
  86. Delivery system of language
    The way in which knowledge of language (linguistics competence) is used to send a message. The three basic ways of delivering a message in linguistically are speech, writing and sign language
  87. DEnotation
    The referential meaning of a word or morpheme, often the first meaning listed in a dictionary
  88. Dependent clause
    A clause that has a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone as a simple sentence. It depends on an independent clause to make it complete.
  89. Dependent, or dependents of a phrase
    All the parts of a phrase that are not its head
  90. Derivation
    The process of forming a new word by adding a derivational affix to a word
  91. Derivational morphemes
    Bound morpheme that change the meaning or lexical category of a word
  92. Derived phrase marker
    A phrase marker after transformational rules have been applied
  93. Descriptive syntax or descriptive grammar
    These terms refer to the mostly subconscious rules of a language that one uses to combine smaller units into sentences. The term also refers tot he study of these rules
  94. Descriptive-representative
    A depiction that has a lifelike (emblematic) relationship to what it represents
  95. Determiner
    A word used before a noun to indicate whether the noun refers to something that is specific or general
  96. Devoiced
    A sound is said to be divorced if it loses its voiced feature because of a voiceless sound or sounds in its phonetic environment
  97. DEZ (designation)
    The handshake of a sign
  98. Diachronic
    (meaning through time) Linguistics This is another name for the history of linguistics
  99. Diacritics or Diacritic marks
    Notations added to the main phonetic symbol to clarify details of pronunciation
  100. Dialect
    (Or variety) The shared unique linguistic characteristics of a language community
  101. Diffuse
    To move out from one place to another
  102. Diffusing (diffusion)
    The process whereby a cultural item moves from one geographic area to another
  103. Dipthong
    A double vowel sound that begins with one vowel sound and gradually moves into another vowel sound or glide
  104. Discourse
    A series of connected utterances, such as a conversation, story, lecture or any other communication even
  105. Discrete signal
    A signal that does not blend with other signals
  106. Displacement
    The ability to communicate about things at times other than the present and to communicate about things not directly in front of the sender and/or receiver
  107. Distinctive
    In linguistics the term refers to units that contrast; that is, change meaning when substituted for each other. Phonemes are distinctive; allophones are not
  108. Distinctive feature
    A basic building bock of the phoneme or more specifically any trait that distinguishes one phoneme from another
  109. Distinctive feature analysis
    The process of analyzing the semantic properties of a word
  110. Dominant condition
    A grammatical rule describing the fact that if only one hand of a two handed signal moves the nonsmoking hand can only be in one of six handshapes
  111. Duration
    The duration of a phone is how long it lasts
  112. Egressive sounds
    Speech sounds produced by expelling air from the lungs
  113. Emblems (speech independent gestures; autonomous gestures)
    Movements of the hands, arms, face or other parts of the body that have a very specific meaning and are not as dependent on speech as other kinetic behaviors
  114. Emic
    Categories and concepts that have meaning to the people being studied. An emic study attempts to discover what things have meaning to the people being studied
  115. Encode
    To put a message into code
  116. Epiglottis
    A membranous flap that covers the glottis during swallowing and prevents anything that is swallowed from entering the lungs
  117. Eponyms
    Words formed from people's names
  118. Ethnocentrism
    The act of judging other cultures by the standards of your culture; it is also the belief that your culture is superior to other cultures
  119. Ethnographer
    This term is another word for the cultural anthropologist who studies and writes about cultures
  120. Etic
    A study done by a cultural outsider using categories and concepts that might not have meaning to the people being studied
  121. Etymology
    The study of the history of words
  122. Existential it
    The existential it in AAE replaces the existential there in SAE
  123. Expletives
    Taboo words that express affective meaning
  124. Facial emblems
    Kinesic behavior that usually has a very specific meaning, such as a smile meaning happiness; it does not have to accompany speech to be understood
  125. Family tree model
    Language relationships assume a "genetic" relationship among languages in a language family in that all languages in the family derived from a common ancestor called a proto-language
  126. Farming-language dispersal hypothesis
    The idea that ancient languages such as Proto-Indo-European were spread as farming people moved into new lands
  127. Feature matrix
    Lists sound segments (or other phenomena) along the horizontal axis, an features on the vertical axis
  128. Fingerspelling
    Different hand shapes represent different letters of the alphabet. Words of an oral language can be spelled differently
  129. The force of language
    It is the power of language to affect and create the social world of the speaker
  130. Fossilization
    This refers to the ingrained use of the first language characteristics and results in the foreign accent of second language learners after the age of puberty
  131. Free morpheme
    A meaningful grammatical unit that can stand alone
  132. Free variation
    A condition in which phonetically different sounds (phonemes or allophones) may occur in the same environment without changing meaning
  133. Fundamental frequency
    The rate at which the vocal folds (cords) vibrate in speech
  134. Fusional language (AKA inflectional language)
    One type of synthetic language in which one bound morpheme may convey several bits of information
  135. Gaze
    To look at something
  136. Germinate
    A phone with duration about twice that of the same phone pronounced with a short duration: a long consonant or vowel
  137. Gender
    The learned complex of masculine or feminine behaviors as defined by culture
  138. Generative grammar
    A finite set of rules that could hypothetically produce (generate) an infinite number of utterances
  139. Glottis
    The space (opening) between the vocal folds
  140. Glottochronology
    The study of the amount of time that sister languages have been separated from their mother language. It uses a calculation of the amount of change that would take place in core vocabulary over a specific amount of time
  141. Tradable pairs
    Antonym such as big/little that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more, whereas the other is less
  142. Grammar
    The system (pattern) of elements such as words and of the rules of phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics inherent in a language. The term grammar also refers to the study of those element and rules
  143. Grammatical (well formed)
    A sentence in which the sequence of words conforms to the synaptic knowledge (rules) of native speakers of a language
  144. Graphemes
    Alphabetical symbols
  145. Great vowel shift
    An unconditioned sound change that altered all Middle East English long vowels
  146. Greeting rituals
    A special kind of discourse that are not at all important for the information they convey but are important for their social function
  147. Grimm's law (AKA first Germanic sound shift)
    A principle proposed by Jacob Grimm which described a systematic phonological change from certain Proto-Indo-European consonants to different consonants in daughter languages
  148. Griot
    A learned elder in an Africa village who has memorized the oral history of the community in a sort of epic poem
  149. Haptics
    The study of touching behavior
  150. Hard Palate
    The bony section of the roof of the mouth
  151. Head of a compound
    Similar to its topic that is the main most general or core meaning of the compound. The head also determines the grammatical function of the compound
  152. Head of a phrase
    The word that determines the synaptic or phrasal category of that phrase
  153. Heteronyms
    Holography that are not pronounced the same. The words tear (water) and tear (rip) are heteronyms
  154. Hispanic English
    The many varieties of English spoken by Americans of Hispanic descent
  155. Historical linguistics (AKA Comparative linguistics)
    The study of how languages change over time and the relationship among different languages
  156. Holophrases
    One-word utterances with which the toddler expresses an entire sentence
  157. Holophrastic stage
    The stage of language acquisition in which the child uses holophrases
  158. Home signs
    Signs invented by deaf people and their relatives to help communicate about everyday items and activities
  159. Hominin
    Refers to modern humans and tot eh ancestors of modern humans that go back in time more than six million years
  160. Homographs
    They are words that differ in meaning but are spelled the same. They might or might not differ in how they are pronounced. The words rose (a flower) and rose (to get up) are phonographs that are pronounced the same, tear and tear are homographs that are not pronounced the same
  161. Homonyms
    Words that differ in meaning are pronounced the same an might or might not be spelled the same. The word pairs rose/rose and might/mite are homonyms
  162. Homophones
    Words that sound the same but differ in meaning and spelling
  163. Hyphenated compound
    Compounds that have a hyphen or hyphens between the different roots of the compound
  164. Hyponyms
    More specific words that constitute a subclass of a more general word
  165. Iconic sign
    An iconic sign resembles what it represents
  166. Identifying-mnemonic representations
    Visual aids that are used to make calculations or are meant to identify or remind the viewer of a specific person, event, song, legend or trail
  167. Idiolect
    An individual's personal, individual way of speaking
  168. Idioms
    Utterances in winch there is a contradiction between the meaning of the parts of the utterance and the entire utterane
  169. Illustrators
    Nonverbal behaviors that accompany speech and serve to clarify or emphasize what is being said
  170. Imitation hypothesis
    The hypothesis proposes that children acquire language by imitating the people around them
  171. Independent clause
    A clause that is also a simple sentence
  172. Indirect language
    The use of statements rather than commands and hints and suggestions rather than orders. It is used by everyone at various times an circumstances; women tend to use indirect language more often than men
  173. Indirect question
    This occurs when the order of a question is revised into the word order for declarative statement.
  174. Inflectional morphemes
    Bound morpheme that do not change the essential meaning or lexical category of a word. They change grammatical functions (other than lexical category)
  175. Ingressive sounds
    Speech sounds that are produced by sucking air into the mouth
  176. Innateness hypothesis
    It postulates that children acquire language by their innate capacity to differentiate phonemes, extract words from the streak of language and process grammar
  177. Interactions hypothesis
    It postulates that children acquire language by their innate language abilities to extract the rules of the language from their environment and construct the phonology, semantics and syntax of their native language
  178. Intonation contour
    The overall pitch of an utterance sometimes represented by a line drawn over the utterance that traces the change in pitch
  179. Intonation language (intentional language)
    Different intonation contours change the synaptic function of sentences that are otherwise the same
  180. Jargon
    The in-group expressions of a profession, sport, hobby or field of expertise
  181. Juncture
    A real or perceived pause within a series of phones
  182. Kinemes
    Considered by some researchers to be the elementary units of kinesic analysis and are analogous to a linguistic unit such as a phoneme
  183. Kinesics
    The formal study of communicating with body movements
  184. Kinship terminology
    The set of words in a language that describe family relationships. Kinship terms in English include words such as mother, father, brother, sister, etc
  185. Language
    This term in its narrowest sense is for most linguists, is a uniquely human cognitive stem used to produce and understand precise meaningful utterances
  186. Language (or speech) community
    A group of people who live work socialize and communicate with one another

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