Lab Practical 1

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lonelygirl
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308182
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Lab Practical 1
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2015-10-02 03:36:51
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103B
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  1. the position of the heart in the body
    a cone-shaped organ approximately the size of a fist, is located within the mediastinum, or medial cavity, of the thorax.
  2. the membranes that surround
    it and line it
    from deep to superficial

    visceral pericardium: is closely applied to the heart muscle

    parietal pericardium: lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium

    fibrous pericardium: dense connective layer protects the heart, anchors it to surroundings structures, and prevents overfilling of the heart with blood

    endocardium: a glistening white sheet of endothelium (squamous epithelium) resting on a thin connective tissue layer

    myocardium: is composed of cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart.

    epicardium: visceral layer of the serous pericardium
  3. abnormal conditions associated with these membranes and possible causes of these conditions
    pericarditis: inflammation of the pericardium, causing painful adhesions between the serous pericardial layers.
  4. know the major vessels that connect the heart to the pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems and know what type of blood flows through these vessels.
    Pulmonary circulatory systems: pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated blood) and pulmonary veins (oxygenated blood)

    Systemic circulatory systmes: superior and inferior venae cavae (deoxygenated blood), aorta (oxygenated blood)
  5. pericardial membranes
    to prevent the heart from overexpanding when blood volume increases
  6. auricles
    LEFT: to collect oxygenated blood as it leaves the lungs and moves the blood into the left ventricle

    RIGHT: to collect deoxygenated blood from the bloodstream and moves it into the heart's right ventricle
  7. ventricles
    RIGHT: to receive blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the main pulmonary artery

    LEFT: to receive blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the aorta
  8. brachiocephalic artery
    to supply oxygenated blood to the head, neck and arm regions of the body
  9. left subclavian artery
    to supply oxygenated blood to the arms
  10. pulmonary trunk
    to route blood to the lungs to be oxygenated.
  11. superior vena cavas
    to bring deoxygenated blood from the head, neck, arm and chest regions of the body to the right atrium
  12. inferior vena cava
    to bring deoxygenated blood from the lower body regions (legs, back, abdomen and pelvis) to the right
  13. pulmonary veins
    to deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
  14. SL valve (aortic and
    pulmonary semilunar valve)
    to prevent backflow from the arteries into the ventricles
  15. AV valve (bicuspid and tricuspid valve)
    to prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting
  16. chordae tendineae
    to anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls
  17. intraventricular septum
    to divde the heart longitudinally
  18. papillary muscles
    to prevent prolapse of anterior and posterior cusps of mitral valve during systole
  19. moderator band
    to convey the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle of the conducting system
  20. trabeculae canale
    to help prevent suction that would occur with a smooth surface and to help bind the heart's muscle tissue together
  21. pectinate muscles
    to increase force of the atrial contraction without increasing heart mass
  22. ligamentum arteriosum
    to allow the passage of a large quantity of blood from the right ventricle to around the lungs filled with fluids
  23. coronary sinus
    to receive the blood from the myocardium and facilitate the movement of the blood into the right atrium
  24. fossa ovalis
    a shallow depression that marks the spot
  25. autorhythmic cardiac cells (Sinoatrial node)
    Location: in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava

    Function: to set the rate of contraction for the heart and spontaneously contracts and generates nerve impulses that travel throughout the heart wall causing both atria to contract
  26. Purkinje fibers
    Location: beneath the endocardium, which is the innermost layer of the heart

    Function: to relay cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract
  27. sinoatrial (SA) node
    Location: in the right atrium just inferior to the entrance to the superior vena cava

    Function: to guard the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers.
  28. conductive fiber systems of the heart
    • 1. SA node pacemaker generates impulses and brings nodal cells to threshold (-40 mv)
    • 2. It spreads via gap junctions through atrial muscle to AV node
    • 3. The impulses delay for 0.1 sec at AV node
    • 4. The AV bundle connects the atria to the ventricles.
    • 5. The bundle branches conduct the impulses through the interventricular septum.
    • 6. Rapid spread through bundles & Purkinje fibers through ventricles
    • 7. The Purkinje fibers depolarize the contractile cells of both ventricle.
  29. P wave
    atrial depolarization

    • P wave: 0.08 to 0.10 s
    • P-R interval: 0.12 to 0.20 s

    A longer than normal intervals indicate conduction problems in the atria (for example, due to ischemia) or a partial AV heart block. A shorter than normal interval suggests that the depolarization did not originate in the SA node.
  30. QRS complex
    ventricular depolarization

    QRS complex: 0.06 to 0.1s

    If the QRS complex is prolonged (>0.1s), conduction is impaired within the ventricles. A wider Q wave is suggestive of myocardial infarction.
  31. QT interval
    from the beginning of ventricular depolarization through repolarization

    QT interval: 0.31 to 0.41s

    Normal range: 70b/min. Interval can shortern when heart rate rises. A QT interval can also be shorter in hypercalcemia (elevated blood Ca2+ levels)
  32. T wave
    ventricular repolarization
  33. Tunica intima
    lines the lumen of a vessel, is a single thin layer of endothelium (squamous cells underlain by a scant basal lamina) that is continous with the endocardium of the heart.

    Its cells fit closely together, forming an extremely smooth blood vessel lining that helps decrease resistance to blood flow.
  34. Tunica media
    the more bulky middle coat and is composed primarily of smooth muscle and elastin. The smooth muscle, under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, plays an active rolse in regulating the diameter of blood vessels, which in turn alters peripheral resistance and blood pressure.
  35. Tunica externa
    the outermost tunic, is composed of areolar or fibrous connective tissue. Its function is basically supportive and protective.
  36. AV valve
    LUB
  37. SL valve
    DUP
  38. swish~~~
    valves do not close tightly
  39. screetch
    not open enough
  40. aortic valve
    sounds are heard in 2nd intercostal space at right sternal margin
  41. pulmonary valve
    sounds are heard in 2nd intercostal space at left sternal margin
  42. bicuspid valve
    sounds are heard over heart apex, in 5th intercostal space in line with middle of clavicle
  43. tricuspid valve
    sounds are typically heard in right sternal margin of 5th intercostal space; variations include over sternum or over left sternal margin in 5th intercostal space
  44. Know where on the body various superficial pulse points are located
    • 1. superficial temporal artery
    • 2. facial artery
    • 3. common carotid artery
    • 4. brachial artery
    • 5. radial artery
    • 6. femoral artery
    • 7. popliteal artery
    • 8. posterior tibial artery
    • 9. dorsalis pedis artery
  45. pulse pressure
    difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

    systolic (120) - diastolic (80)
  46. mean arterial pressure
    the average arterial pressure during a singlecardiac cycle

    MAP = diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/3)
  47. Understand the uses of the apical-radial pulse measurements in diagnosis
    pulse deficit
  48. Know normal diastolic and systolic blood pressures and why they are measured at the brachial artery
    diastolic (80) and systolic (120). Because it's the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand
  49. plasma
    the colorless fluid part of blood
  50. formed elements
    one of the red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets as contrasted with the fluid portion of the blood
  51. erythrocytes (RBCs)
    sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport the bulk of the oxygen carried in the blood (and a small percentage of the carbon dioxide)
  52. leukocytes (WBCs)
    part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
  53. Platelets
    one of the tiny colorless disk-shaped bodies of the blood that assist in blood clotting
  54. diapedesis
    the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation
  55. amoeboid motion
    A crawling-like type of movement in which the cell forms temporary cytoplasmic projections
  56. water
    solvent for carrying other substances; absorbs heat
  57. salts (electrolytes)

    Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Bicarbonate
    osmotic balance, pH buffering, regulation of membrane permeability
  58. plasma proteins
    osmotic balance, pH buffering, clotting of blood, defense (antibodies) and lipid transport
  59. substances transported by blood
    nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins), waste products of metabolism (urea, uric acid), respiratory gases (O2 and CO2), hormones
  60. erythrocytes (RBCs)
    4-6 million, transport oxygen and help transport carbon dioxide
  61. leukocytes (WBCs), NLMEB
    4,800-10,800, defense and immunity
  62. Platelets
    150,000-400,000, blood clotting
  63. Understand the significance and know the normal range of blood plasma pH
    Normal blood pH: 7.35-7.45
  64. what pathological conditions might be associated with pH values outside the normal range.
    • Hormone concerns
    • Cardiovascular weakness
    • Weight gain/loss
    • Bladder and kidney concerns.
    • Immune deficiencyAcceleration of free radical damage.
    • Structural system weakness, including brittle bones, hip fractures and joint discomfort
    • Stressed liver function
    • Low energy
    • Slow digestion and elimination
    • Yeast/fungal overgrowth.
    • Tumor growth
  65. Know the physical characteristics and components of plasma
    More than 100 different substances are dissolved or suspended in plasma, which is 90% water. These included nutrients, gases, hormones, various wastes and metabolities, many types of proteins and electrolytes.
  66. Hematocrit
    • is routinely determined when anemia is suspected. 
    • WOMEN: 42.0 + or - 5
    • MEN: 47.0 + or - 5
  67. Low hematocrit
    • Anemia
    • Bleeding
    • Destruction of red blood cells
    • Leukemia
    • Malnutrition
    • Nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6
    • Overhydration
  68. High hematocrit
    • Congenital heart disease
    • Failure of the right side of the heart (cor pulmonale)
    • DehydrationAbnormal increase in red blood cells (erythrocytosis)
    • Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia)
    • Scarring or thickening of the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis)
    • Bone marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs (polycythemia vera)

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