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What part of your hand should you use to determine vibration?
ulnar surfaces of hand and fingers
What part of your hand should you use to determine temperature?
dorsal surface of hand
What part of your hand should you use to determine texture, size, or crepitus?
palmar surface of fingers and finger pads
How will the leg BP compare to arm BP in a case of coarctation of the aorta or aortic stenosis?
it will be LOWER (normally is higher)
Orthostatic HTN: measure BP sitting, then within ___ minutes of standing. If present, systolic will drop > ___ mmHg & diastolic will drop > __ mmHg.
What kind of pain may be tender, deep, and aching?
bone and soft tissue pain
What kind of pain may be heavy, throbbing, and aching?
tumor pressing on a cavity
What kind of pain may be burning, shock like pain?
nerve tissue damage
What may cramping spasms indicate?
visceral or colic pain
What may a sustained tachycardia indicate in an infant?
underlying cardiac rhythm disturbance, such as paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
Normal RR for newborns.
Expected newborn BP.
60/30 - 96/62
In newborns, what could a sustained increase in BP indicate?
- thrombosis after umbilical catheter
- coarctation of aorta
- renal DO
- congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- CNS disease
What is the PIPP?
- Premature Infant Pain Profile
- used to assess procedural pain in newborns b/w 28-40 wks gestation
When is the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale used?
to assess procedure pain up to 6 wks of of age
What is the CRIES scale?
- Requires O2 to keep sat >95
- Increased Vital Signs
- -used to evaluate procedure & surgical pain in newborns & infants
Normal RR for 1 yr old
Normal RR for 6 yr old
Normal RR for 3 yr old
Normal RR for 10 yr old
Normal RR for 17 yr old
Normal BP for kids are is designated in what percentile?
Pre-HTN for kids are is designated in what percentile?
In kids, if systolic is elevated and diastolic is not, what could be the cause?
What is FLACC?
- a Behavioral Pain Assessment Scale for nonverbal children
What part of the brain is primarily responsible for a person's mental status?
- (cerebral cortex = higher mental fxns & is responsible for perception & behavior)
What part of the brain is responsible for receiving and processing sensory data?
What part of the brain contains the motor cortex and is associated with speech formation?
frontal lobe (Broca area)
What part of the brain is responsible for decision making, problem solving, concentration, and short-term memory?
Where do emotions, affect, drive, autonomic responses to emotional states, and awareness of self orginate?
What part of the brain is responsible for the perception and interpretation of sounds?
What part of the brain allows a person to understand spoken and written language?
Wernicke area within the temporal lobe
Person disorientation results from?
- cerebral trauma
Place disorientation occurs with?
- psych DO
- cognitive impairment
What is the mini-cog?
- measures cognitive fxn
- tell pt three words to remember
- draw clock face (in 3 min)
- repeat the 3 words
examples of attention span assessment.
- follow a short set of commands
- say days of week or spell "world" fwd & bkwd
- perform arithmetic calculations
Decreased attn span may be r/t?
- toxic or metabolic causes = confusion
What is circumlocution?
Pantomime or word substitution to avoid revealing that a word was forgotten.
What is perseveration?
Repetition of a word, phrase, or gesture
Meaningless, disconnected word choices.
Word choice based on sound so that words rhyme in a nonsensical way
What is echolalia?
repeating ANOTHER PERSON's words
What type of hallucinations are most commonly associated with alcohol withdrawal?
What type of hallucinations are associated with psych DO, severe dipression, acute into, delirium, & dementia?
auditory & visual
Articulation milestones in children b/w 2.5 - 6 yoa may be evaluated with what screening exam?
Patients with _____, which has a gradual onset, are likely to appear apathetic and depressed, and often get lost in familiar places.
Patients with _______ develop symptoms suddenly and are prone to mood swings.