Ecology - Chapter 1

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Ecology - Chapter 1
2015-10-09 12:31:45
science ecology chapter1 jasminezhang

Ecology Chaper 1 - Glossary Terms
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  1. Ecosystem
    All the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment.
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms.
  3. Biotic
    The living parts of an ecosystem.
  4. Abiotic
    The non-living parts of an ecosystem.
  5. Lithosphere
    The hard part of Earth's surface.
  6. Hydrosphere
    All the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and ground water.
  7. Atmosphere
    The layer of gases above Earth's surface.
  8. Biosphere
    The regions of Earth where living organisms exist.
  9. Nutrients
    A chemical that is essential to living things and is cycled through ecosystems.
  10. Eutrophication
    A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in the populations of primary producers.
  11. Photosynthesis
    A process that changes solar energy into chemical energy.
  12. Trophic level
    A category of organisms that is defined by how the organisms gain their energy.
  13. Biomass
    The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area.
  14. Trophic efficiency
    A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one tropic level to the next higher trophic level.
  15. Bioaccumulation
    A process in which an organism ingests materials, especially toxins, faster than it eliminates them.
  16. Biomagnification
    A process in which the concentration of ingested toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next.
  17. Cellular Respiration
    • a process that releases energy from organic molecules in the presence of oxygen
    • carbohydrates mostly
    • essential to life

    Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
  18. Fermentation
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen.
  19. Greenhouse gases
    An atmospheric gas that prevents heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperture of the atmosphere
  20. Greenhouse effect
    The warming of Earth as a result of greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave Earth.
  21. Acid precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic (pH less that 5.6) due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids.