Ecology and Evo

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Ecology and Evo
2015-09-21 00:40:29

Exam 1
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  1. which scientists argued for continuous distribution of traits
    darwin, f. galton, K. pearson
  2. dominant trait what is the genotype and phenotype ratios
    • 1:2:1
    • 1:3 (phenotype)
  3. Lamarckism
    organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring.
  4. saltation
    sudden change from one generation to the next
  5. mutation is good or bad
  6. thomas malthus
    survival is the perpetual struggle for food and room
  7. Darwin went to what school
    Dr. Butler's school, strictly classical
  8. Henslow
    almost took Darwin's position on the Beagle
  9. when was the voyage of the Beagle
    Dec 1831-Oct 1836
  10. charles lyell
    darwin's advisor
  11. alfred russel wallace
    came to same conclusions as Darwin on the origin of species
  12. what was the problem of blending inheritance?
    natural selection would not work if the extremes are eliminated...need a particular form of inheritance that does not lose extremes
  13. who were the mendelians?
    • de vries
    • w. bateson
  14. who advocated the cell theory of 1839
    weismann, johannsen, morgan
  15. RA fisher
    est. population genetics
  16. what is population genetics
    study of distribution and changes in allele frequency in a population as it is subject to selection, genetic drift, mutation and genetic recombination
  17. what was the reconciliation between the mendelians and the biometricians
    polygenics: phenotype is influenced by more than one gene
  18. what are the assumptions of hardy-weinberg relation?
    • random pairing, no assortative mating
    • no selection
    • no migration
  19. why is H-W an equilibrium?
    the new frequency is the same as the old frequency
  20. what does HW ensure?
    • maintenance of genetic variation
    • translation between allele and genotype frequencies
    • provides evidence of evolutionary action when genotype frequencies deviate
  21. how does variation occur?
    through mutation and recombination (reshuffles mutations in new configurations)
  22. can mutation drive evolution?
    too infrequent, cannot itself drive evolution
  23. how is the fate of variation determined?
    by both stochastic (genetic drift, random) and deterministic (natural selection). The latter leads to adaptation.
  24. natural selections acts on who, what are its consequences?
    acts on individuals, but consequences are populational
  25. sources of genetic variation?
    • non-disjunction (meiotic anomalies)
    • mutations: DNA rep errors
    • recombinations (mutations shuffled into new configurations)
  26. how to measure genetic variation?
    • mendelizing morphological or serological traits
    • chromosomal variation
    • protein variants
    • restriction mapping
    • DNA sequence
  27. what is the paradox at heart of darwinism
    mutations are bad for individuals but required for evolution
  28. robins laying eggs is what kind of selection?
  29. peppered moth vs. dark moths what kind of selection?
  30. polymorphism
    two alleles at 1 locus
  31. what percentage of human genome encodes proteins?
  32. what percent of human genes are in the mouse
  33. are we more homologous to fruit fly or nematode worm?
    • fruit fly (61% of homologous proteins) vs 43% 
    • half a billion years of evolutionary separation from humans
  34. how to do functional tests of similarity?
    • eyeless drosophila is the homolog of pax-6 in mammals 
    • inject rat gene for eye, drosophila grows eye
  35. birth weight is what kind of selection?
    • stabilizing
    • increase in frequency of the intermediate phenotype
  36. synonymous evolution, which is faster?
    • silent mutations
    • synonymous mutation is faster than non synonymous
  37. who performed experiments on peppered moth?
  38. acclimate
    DNA doesn't change
  39. Adaptation
    DNA changes
  40. convergent evolution
    • independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. 
    • creates analogous structures with similar form or function, but not present in last common ancestor of those groups
  41. who did experiments with blind cavefish (astyanax mexicanus)
  42. after the drought, what kind of beaks were the best?
    bigger beaks, because the size and hardness of the seeds increased.
  43. achromatopsia
    • can't see color
    • affected 5% of population in micronesia, ping clap
  44. rate of change of gene frequency by random drift depends on what?
    size of the population
  45. who did research on the lynx and the hare
    e t seton
  46. effective population size
    • when drift has no significant effect; population has the same magnitude of genetic drift as the actual population
    • in fluctuating populations, N is the harmonic mean of the population size
  47. Markov proces
    random walk whose transition is dependent only on its position in the previous step
  48. absorbing barriers
    in absence of selection gene frequencies vary until population is fixed (0 or 1 for an allele)
  49. who came up with neutral theory of evolution, when?
    motoo kimura 1968
  50. what does kimura propose?
    • most mutations are neutral
    • immediately goes to zero frequency if the mutation is neg
    • rarely positive (goes to fixation)
    • so population size does not matter
  51. what does the total extent of genetic divergence depend on?
    time since isolation