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T or F: fungi and plants do not share a cell wall
What are the 4 postulates?
- 1. Organism present in unhealthy host
- 2. Organism must be isolated
- 3. Infect healthy organism
- 4. Host must be sick with specific disease
Why didn't the postulates work with HIV?
- HIV stops immune response, which produces different types of illnesses
- Cannot be isolated
- Cannot inject into another human being
What are the 4 modern cell theories?
- 1. all organisms made of living cells
- 2. all cells made of preexisting cells
- 3. all biochemistry rxns must occur within a cell
- 4. all cells have herdity information
How are all cells similiar? (5 ways)
- 1. all carry DNA
- 2. have similiar chemical rxns
- 3. have an external plasma membrane
- 4. all take in nutrients and create wastes
- 5. all grow and reproduce
Fill in the blanks:
1. ___ has a nucleus, ____ has a nucleoid
2. ____ has a liniear chromosome, ____ has a spiral chromosome
3. ____ uses mitosis, ____ uses binary fission
4. ____ has plasmids and endospores, ____ has organelles
- 1. euk, prok
- 2. prok, euk
- 3. euk, prok
- 4. prok, euk
T or F: both euk and prok cells have cytoplasm and a plasma membrane
Does a gram positive or negative have a thick peptidoglycan layer?
Gram positive peptidoglycan layer
Does gram positive or negative have an outer membrane?
T or F: gram positive produces endotoxins
False: gram positives produces exotoxins
Why is it important to know if a bacteria is gram + or - when treating with antibiotics?
Antibiorics can kill a patient if treated too aggressively because the type of toxins released by the killed bacteria can kill someone in high concentrations.
Where is the periplasmic space?
space between the cell wall of a bacteria and plasma membrane
In this "space" is where ATP synthesis occurs in bacteria
How can we differ bacterial ribosomes vs. euk. ribosomes?
prok ribosomes spins differently in a centrifuge than euk
This is where genetic material is housed in prok.
What is the inclusion body?
granulars of organic and inorganic body that the cell uses to get rid of theparticles
What is the benefit of capsules?
can help resist phagocytosis
What is the "f-factor"?
- a way for bacteria to pass on genetic information to another bacteria
- - Plasmids are the most successful way
T or F: endospores are only found in gram positive cells
What is the endosymbiosis theory?
- Life went from a single cell organism to a multicellular one
- > life did not come from a spark, but from the sun's released energy
What are the arguements that viruses are not alive?
- 1. they do not eat or produce waste by themselves
- 2. most or least evolved life forms
- 3. cannot produce outside of host cell
T or F: all viruses have capsids
What are the properties of viral capsids? (3)
- 1. molecules in capsids allow virus to find or be taken into a cell
- 2. they are host specific
- 3. it gives the virus its shape
How can a virus exit or enter a cell through exocytosis?
some viruses have envelopes, a membrand around the virus which allows the virus to exit or enter the cell
This process is how a protein is made
What are the two ways a virus is released from a host cell
- 1. naked virus is when cell is lysed
- 2. envelope virus is when it creates another membrane from cell and leaves via exocytosis
What are mechanisms of how viruses damage their hosts? 8 in total
- 1. inhibit host cell's protein synthesis
- 2. process lysosomes, which contain hydrolitic enzymes, damaging the cell when released
- 3. alters plasma membrane in such a way that it can no longer bring in food or release waste
- 4. creates high concentrations in deadly levels of viral proteins
- 5. formations of inclusion bodies which disrupts cell's chemistry
- 6. disrupt chromosomes by injecting viral DNA into host RNA
- 7. transforms a cell to replicate uncontrollably, like a cancer cell
- 8. makes cell more susceptible to other infections, weakend system
What are prions?
protonacious particle that acts like a protein. When it comes in contact with a healthy protein, it changes the shape of the healthy protein, which then loses its function.
What are the pros and cons of a counting chamber?
- Pro: accurate, low tech and cheap
- con: tedious, has to be stained to differentiate between life and death cells
What are electronic counters used for? What are its pros and cons?
- Used for RBC & WBC
- Pro: can easily count small structures
- con: if sample is not clean, it will count foreign substances
When is viality counting methods used?
Only when looking at live cells
What are the pros and cons of the membrane filter technique?
- Pro: can be used in water filtration systems, when taking in large quantities of water
- con: catches bacteria, but still have to grow the bacteria in a lab after isolating it.
What are ways to culture viruses? 5 ways
- 1. putting in embryonic eggs
- 2. putting in tissue culture and flasks
- 3. euk. cells./??
- 4. bacteriahage cultivation
- 5. plant viruses
What are two ways to see if a cell is infected by a virus?
- Plex: when u see holes in a culture, it shows a lysed cell
- Cytopathic effects: when cell looks sick or does not behave correctly
What is the trick when looking for bacteriophage in a flask?
- It is a delicate procedure because, if the virus is thrown in too early, it will lyse all the bacteria before the bacteria can grow in high enough amounts
- If thrown in too late, the viruses will all have a host and there will be no more isolated viruses