Ecology Chapter 1

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Ecology Chapter 1
2015-09-21 20:03:29
Ecology chapter1

First chapter glossary terms
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  1. Ecosystem
    - All the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    - An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
  3. Biotic
    • - The living parts of an ecosystem
    • - e.g trees and foxes
  4. Abiotic
    • - The non-living parts of an ecosystem
    • - e.g rocks and air
  5. Lithosphere
    - The hard part of the Earth's surface
  6. Hydrosphere
    - All the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and ground water
  7. Atmosphere
    - The layer of gases above Earth's surface
  8. Biosphere
    - The regions of Earth where living organisms exist
  9. Nutrients
    - Chemicals that are essential to living things and are cycled through ecosystems
  10. Eutrophication
    - A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in populations of primary producers

    •  1. Fertilizer run off from farmland into water
    •  2. Algae Bloom
    •  3. Submerged plants dies due to reduced light
    •  4. Algae and other plants die
    •  5. Bacteria use oxygen during decomposition
    •  6. Oxygen levels in water drop too low for fish to survive
  11. Photosynthesis
    • - A process that changes solar energy into chemical energy
    • - Puts together carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen to make life's universal energy supply
    •                     Light energy
    • carbon dioxide + water-> glucose + oxygen 
  12. Trophic Level
    - A category of organisms that is defined by how their organisms gain their energy

    •  1. First trophic level: Primary producers (plants)
    •  2. Second trophic level: Primary consumers (herbivores)
    •  3. Third trophic level: Secondary consumers (carnivores)
    •  4. Fourth trophic level: Tertiary consumers (top carnivores)
  13. Biomass
    • - The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area
    • - The mass that has been assembled by organisms using solar energy
  14. Trophic efficiency
    • - A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level
    • -This percentage is always less than 100 percent and is usually only around 10 percent
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • - A process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated
    • - Can work to advantage of species if they become poisonous because more can survive to reproduce
    • - Normally devastating when from human-made pollution
  16. Biomagnification
    - A process in which the concentration of ingested toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular respiration
    • - A process that releases energy from organic molecules in the presence of oxygen
    • - Carbohydrates mostly
    • - Used by most living organisms e.g Humans, bacteria, and plants
    • - Essential to life

    glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
  18. Fermentation
    - A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
  19. Greenhouse gases
    • - Atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere
    • - Greenhouse gases include: water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane
  20. Greenhouse effect
    - The warming of Earth as a result of the greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave earth
  21. Acid precipitation
    • - Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic (pH less than 5.6) due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water form acids
    • - Happens when water combines with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide and create nitric acid and sulfuric acid