Chapter 1 Glossary Cards
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The interacting parts of the biological community and it's environment ie, ponds, lakes, forests.
An ecosystem that can withstand external pressure and is able to give support to a variety of organisms. All organisms require an sustainable ecosystem to be able to survive. An example would be and ocean, since it is able to support many different types of species.
- The currently or former living parts that comprise of an ecosystem ie, Animals, Plants, Fungi, etc...
- Organisms survive by either predation, where one organisms consumes another, or by competition where two or more compete for resources.
The non living components that makes up an ecosystem. There are five abiotic factors that are apart of ecosystems, they are water (H2
O), Light (sun), air (O2
), chemical nutrients, and soil.
The hardest part of the Earth's surface
All the water/ liquids that are found on the Earth ie, ocean, lakes, etc.
The layer that contains all the Earth's gases ie, air, carbon dioxide, etc..
The regions where living organisms exist. It is not a seperate sphere on it's own, but instead is apart of the other 3 spheres. ie, life in soil (biosphere and lithosphere), life in the ocean (biosphere and hydosphere)
A chemical that is essential to all living creatures, it is cycled though different the different spheres.
- When the amount of nutrients increases in an aquatic scenario and causes the unnatural increase of primary producers ie, plants, algae, etc.
- This can cause the death of some animals that are lower on the food chain and disturb the natural order. It is usually caused by man made products that find it's water into the hydrosphere. ie, fertilizer
A process that changes solar energy to chemical energy by using water and carbon dioxide and converting them to glucose and air. The chemical equation is Carbon Dioxide + Water ---> Glucose + Oxygen
- It is a category of organisms that are defined by how they gain their energy.
- There are 4 levels,
- Primary producers are organisms that make their own food
- Primary consumers are organisms that eat primary producers and cannot make their own food
- Secondary producers are organisms that eat both primary producers and primary consumers
- Tertiary consumers are the top carnivores and eat anything that is below it.
It is the total mass of a defined group of organisms
- A measure of the amount of energy that is being transferred to one tropic to a higher one.
- The trophic efficiency is never 100% it is closer to approx- 10% this is because most animal do not eat all of the animal and therefore does not receive all of it's energy
Is where an organism ingests material, mostly toxic, faster then it eliminates them. The toxins are usually man-made ie, DDT (man made pesticide), PCBs
Is where the concentration of the toxins increase as it moves up the trophic level. Since the
- A process that releases energy from organic material, mainly carbohydrates, in an aerobic condition or where air is present.
- The glucose is created from the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration converts the glucose to a usable form of energy
- The word equation of this process is glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide +water + energy
- A process that release organic molecules mostly carbohydrates in anaerobic conditions or conditions without air
- Fermentation is similar to cellular respiration and it mostly used by fungi to release the energy of glucose
An atmospheric gas that prevents heat from escaping the atmosphere and thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. An example of greenhouse gases would be water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane.
The warming of the Earth caused by trapped greenhouse gases which would have otherwise left the atmosphere
Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases that are in the atmosphere that react with water to create acids. May destroy trees by leeching nutrients from it's roots.
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