Chapter 1 Glossary Cards

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  1. Ecosystem
    The interacting parts of the biological community and it's environment ie, ponds, lakes, forests.             Image Upload
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    An ecosystem that can withstand external pressure and is able to give support to a variety of organisms. All organisms require an sustainable ecosystem to be able to survive. An example would be and ocean, since it is able to support many different types of species.
  3. Biotic
    • The currently or former living parts that comprise of an ecosystem ie, Animals, Plants, Fungi, etc...
    • Organisms survive by either predation, where one organisms consumes another, or by competition where two or more compete for resources.
  4. Abiotic
    The non living components that makes up an ecosystem. There are five abiotic factors that are apart of ecosystems, they are water (H2O), Light (sun), air (O2), chemical nutrients, and soil.Image Upload
  5. Lithosphere
    The hardest part of the Earth's surfaceImage Upload
  6. Hydrosphere
    All the water/ liquids that are found on the Earth ie, ocean, lakes, etc.
  7. Atmosphere
    The layer that contains all the Earth's gases ie, air, carbon dioxide, etc.. Image Upload
  8. Biosphere
    The regions where living organisms exist. It is not a seperate sphere on it's own, but instead is apart of the other 3 spheres. ie, life in soil (biosphere and lithosphere), life in the ocean (biosphere and hydosphere)
  9. Nutrients
    A chemical that is essential to all living creatures, it is cycled though different the different spheres.
  10. Eutrophication
    • When the amount of nutrients increases in an aquatic scenario and causes the unnatural increase of primary producers ie, plants, algae, etc.
    • This can cause the death of some animals that are lower on the food chain and disturb the natural order. It is usually caused by man made products that find it's water into the hydrosphere. ie, fertilizer
  11. Photosynthesis
    A process that changes solar energy to chemical energy by using water and carbon dioxide and converting them to glucose and air. The chemical equation is Carbon Dioxide + Water ---> Glucose + Oxygen
  12. Trophic Level
    • It is a category of organisms that are defined by how they gain their energy.
    • There are 4 levels,
    • Primary producers are organisms that make their own food
    • Primary consumers are organisms that eat primary producers and cannot make their own food
    • Secondary producers are organisms that eat both primary producers and primary consumers
    • Tertiary consumers are the top carnivores and eat anything that is below it.

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  13. Biomass
    It is the total mass of a defined group of organisms
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    • A measure of the amount of energy that is being transferred to one tropic to a higher one.
    • The trophic efficiency is never 100% it is closer to approx- 10% this is because most animal do not eat all of the animal and therefore does not receive all of it's energy
  15. Bioaccumulation
    Is where an organism ingests material, mostly toxic, faster then it eliminates them. The toxins are usually man-made ie, DDT (man made pesticide), PCBs
  16. Biomagnification
    Is where the concentration of the toxins increase as it moves up the trophic level. Since the
  17. Cellular respiration
    • A process that releases energy from organic material, mainly carbohydrates, in an aerobic condition or where air is present.
    • The glucose is created from the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration converts the glucose to a usable form of energy
    • The word equation of this process is glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide +water + energy
  18. Fermentation
    • A process that release organic molecules mostly carbohydrates in anaerobic conditions or conditions without air
    • Fermentation is similar to cellular respiration and it mostly used by fungi to release the energy of glucose
  19. Greenhouse gases
    An atmospheric gas that prevents heat from escaping the atmosphere and thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. An example of greenhouse gases would be water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane.Image Upload
  20. Greenhouse effect
    The warming of the Earth caused by trapped greenhouse gases which would have otherwise left the atmosphere
  21. Acid precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases that are in the atmosphere that react with water to create acids. May destroy trees by leeching nutrients from it's roots.
Card Set:
Chapter 1 Glossary Cards
2015-09-23 15:41:51
glossary cards ecosystem

This is for my Gr.9 science class
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