Anthropology Exam 1

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Anthropology Exam 1
2015-09-23 03:07:30
Anthropology Exam
Exam 1
All terms and info for the first exam.
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  1. Absolute Dating
    Any date where a year or range of years can be applied to a site or artifact
  2. Relative Dating
    A date that places site or artifact in a chronological order with other specimens
  3. Accelerator Mass Spectometry (AMS)
    Radio carbon dating of a smaller sample so that a huge sample won't be destroyed
  4. Archaeomagnetic Dating (2)
    • Magnetic orientation can become "fossilized" in cultural features. 
    • Find magnetic north= find date
  5. Carbon Dating
    Radiometric dating technique based on the decay of a radioactive isotope of carbon
  6. Megafauna
    Very large herbivores of the Pleistocene world (woolly mammoth)
  7. Ecofact
    Element found at a site that exhibits human activity (butchered animal bone)
  8. Artifact
    Object manufactured by a human being/ancestor (stone pot)
  9. Hypotheses
    proposed explanation for some phenomenon, can be derived from observation of a phenomenon
  10. Primary Refuse
    Artifacts or ecofacts left at the place that they were used/produced
  11. Secondary Refuse
    Artifacts/ecofacts removed by people and taken to a designated refuse (trash pit)
  12. Pedestrian Survery
    Systematic walkover of an area in search of unnatural inclusions/shapes/shiny objects
  13. Cache
    Stash of stuff placed away for safe keeping by ancient people (time capsule)
  14. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
    Noninvasive technique involving a cart that is pulled that sends electromagnetic pulses through the soil
  15. Proton Magnetometry
    Magnetometer measures the strength of the earth's magnetic field from the surface and detects anomalies (buried walls)
  16. Trace Element Analysis
    Determining the geographic source of the materials used by and ancient people through the analysis of small concentrations in the material
  17. Neutron Activation Analysis
    Precise and unique chemical makeup of raw material sources are found analyzing by analyzing trace elements and comparing
  18. X-ray Florescence
    Each chemical element in a raw material is read and determined through x-rays resulting in the exact elemental composition of the material
  19. Morphology
    Analysis of the shape and form of skeletons and artifacts
  20. Faunal Assemblage
    Animal bones found at a site and the species represented by those bones
  21. C3 Pathway
    Photosynthetic process employed by trees
  22. C4 Pathway
    Photosynthetic process employed by grasses
  23. C-14
    How much less of Carbon 14 is measured and the amount of decay in the material can give a time frame based on the time it takes Carbon 14 to reach its half-life
  24. Isotopes
    Variety of an elements atomic form
  25. Half-life
    Measurement of the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope to decay into a stable form
  26. Sexual Dimorphism
    Differences in the form and size of the two sexes (men larger)
  27. Stratigraphy
    Relatively dating things based on their layer in the earth
  28. Radiocarbon Dating
    Radiometric dating technique based on the decay of a radioactive isotope of carbon (C14)
  29. Thermoluminescence Dating
    Energy produced from natural radiation in soil becomes trapped in nearby objects that can be measured
  30. Dendrochronology
    Tree ring dating
  31. Radiometric Dating
    Any dating technique based on the measurement of radioactive decay
  32. Adaptations
    Mode or strategy for survival including a characteristic that will help an organism survive in a changing environment
  33. Archaeological Site
    Place where people lived and where the material objects they used are recovered and analyzed
  34. Archaeology
    Study of humanity through the analysis of the things that people made and used in the past
  35. Cultural Evolution
    Cultures change in response to their physical and cultural environments
  36. Ethnographers
    Cultural anthropologist who lives among a group of people/cultural group
  37. NAGPRA
    Defines ownership and the return of sites and bones that culturally belong to the modern Native Americans
  38. Evolution
    Systematic change through time of biological organisms or human cultural systems
  39. Holistic
    • Defines Archaeology
    • Look at everything as a whole and see how everything fits
  40. Multilineal Evolution
    Many pathways of change a culture may take over the time span of its existence
  41. Natural Selection
    Individuals of a species that possess advantageous characteristics are more likely to survive and pass on their genes
  42. Three-age system
    Chronological breakdown of the history of human culture into a stone, bronze and iron age
  43. Uniformitarianism
    Appearance of earth resulted from the slow action of known processes over a very long period of time
  44. Unilineal Evolution
    No longer accepted view that all cultures change along the same pathway of increasing complexity
  45. Lascaux (3)
    • Cave Paintings
    • Found in 1940
    • 15,000-9,000 BC
  46. Petroglyph
    Designs carved/etched into rock faces
  47. Pictograph
    Painting on a rocks surface
  48. Mobility Art
    Portable art including the venus figurine
  49. Ochre
    Used to produce paint
  50. Solutrean
    Stone tool-making tradition of the European Upper Paleolithic (symmetrical, leaf shaped projectile point)
  51. Parietal Art
    Art on the wall of a cave
  52. Grave Goods
    Cultural materials placed into a grave, sometimes in a conscious attempt to provide the deceased with items needed in the afterlife
  53. Gravettian
    Toolmaking tradition of the Upper Paleolithic. Small blades and denticulate knives
  54. Aurignacian
    Lithic tool technology associated with anatomically modern human beings. Long, narrow blade tools
  55. Heinrich Events
    Fluctuations in Arctic result in the breaking off of icebergs that contain sediments and rock mass
  56. Coliboaia Cave
    • Romania
    • In a flooded cave that can only be reached through diving
    • 6 drawings of animals
  57. Magdalenian (5)
    • Later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic 
    • Europe
    • Characterized by composite or specialized tools, tailored clothing
    • First to use a spear thrower (reindeer bone)
    • Bone was used extensively
  58. Cultural Ownership
    • Ethics
    • Awareness that we all have privilege to learn but ancestors we want to study have modern day ancestors
  59. Cultural Evolution (Old v. New)
    • Old: Savagery-barbarism-complex society
    • New: Cultures evolve and devolve, are constantly changing.
  60. Glamour of Archealogy (Then)-2
    • Treasure Hunters
    • People were looking for treasures & places that are easy to find/popular
  61. Glamour of Archealogy (Now)
    • Focus more on average person than elite
    • Education= more people can access not just rich
    • Technology allows for more discoveries
  62. Upper Paleolithic (2)
    • 40,000-10,000 years ago
    • Rapidly changing technology
  63. Calibration Curve
    Compare carbon dates with each other to get a more specific date
  64. Chauvet Cave (2)
    • Movement is a common theme
    • 20,000 years ago
  65. Thomas Bruce Earl of Elgin (2)
    • Turks occupied Greece
    • Took stuff from the Parthenon/Greece and brought it back to the British Museum
  66. Harriet Boyd Hawes (2)
    • First to lead an expedition of Creet
    • First female leader
  67. Charles Darwin (2)
    • Anthroplogy Influence
    • Evidence of human evolution provides a basis for Archaeologist studying cultural evolution
  68. Charles Lyell (3)
    • Used stratigraphy and uniformitaranism
    • Slow agency of existing causes
    • Timescale for dating
  69. Uniformitarianism
    Natural evolutions/ operations are equable and steady
  70. Willard Libby (2)
    • Used C 14 Dating on Bison/charcoal
    • WWII- studying nuclear weaponry and invented radiocarbon dating
  71. Martimer Wheeler (2)
    • Systematic excavation
    • Square pits- how we record things so that if destruction, we can reconstruct it in the best way possible
  72. Jean Clottes (2)
    • Cave art interpreter
    • Chauvet Cave