A&P chap 4/5

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A&P chap 4/5
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2015-09-22 11:58:32
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A&P chap 4/5
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  1. organic compunds
    contain carbon, covalently bonded, and often large
  2. inorganic compunds
    do not contain carbon

    ex. water, salts, and many acids and bases
  3. important properties of water
    high heat capacity, polar solvent properties, reactivity(important in hydrolysis and dehydration, cushioning (protects body)
  4. salts
    • typically inorganic
    • contain cations other than h+ and anions other than OH-
    • and are electrolytes(they conduct electricity
  5. acid
    any substance that INCREASES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (give protons)

    they release H+
  6. base
    any substance that REDUCES hydrogen ion concentration (take protons)

    release OH-
  7. the more protons the____
    lower the pH
  8. neutral solutions have what?
    equal H+ and OH- concentrations
  9. buffer
    a substance that minimizes the changes in concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a s solutions.

    they protect pH levels
  10. Biomolecules
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  11. biomolecules is also known as what?
    polymer/ macromolecule
  12. dehydration synthesis
    forms polymers and takes water out and inputs energy
  13. hydrolosys
    breaks down polymers by putting water and releasing the energy
  14. carbohydrates contain what?
    carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  15. what is a carbohydrates  main purpose?
    to supply a source of cellular food (energy)
  16. what is the carbohydrate's monomer?
    monosaccharide

    they are used directly by cells as fuel
  17. monosaccharides are used as an _____ and polysaccharides are used as___
    energy source, energy storage
  18. lipids
    contain C,H, and O, but the proportions of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates
  19. lipids are_____
    hydrophbic
  20. types of lipids
    triglycerides, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, steroids
  21. what are lipids composed of?
    3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule (triglyceride)
    • phospholipids
    • makes most cell membranes
    • they are a modified trygliceride with 2 fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group
  22. the have a polar head(likes water) and a non polar tail(doestn like water)
  23. steroid

    flat molecules with 4 interlocking hydrogen rings

    cell signaling& growth and development
  24. whats the difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats?
    saturated packs up tightly and clogs up arteries easily

    unsaturated are less tight and leave room for blood to flow through
  25. amino acid
    • building blocks for proteins
    • each contain and amino acid group and a carboxyl group
  26. what are macromolecules (proteins) composed of?
    combinations of 20 types of amino acids
  27. a bunch of amino acids together are?
    peptide bonds
  28. primary protein structure
    a chain of amino acids
  29. secondary protein structure
    sheets of amino acids
  30. tertiary protein structure
    3D
  31. what determines how the proteins will fold?
    the sequence of amino acids
  32. quaternary protein structure
    separate polypeptides(proteins) chains linked together in a specific maner
  33. sickle-cell disease
    one protein goes wrong (hemoglobin) and now it cant carry as much oxygen
  34. fibrous proteins
    • extended and strandlike 
    • connect things
  35. globular proteins
    hormones and enzymes
  36. enzymes
    type of protein that acts like a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions by lower the activation energy
  37. micro-filament?
    skeleton (made of proteins) of a cell
  38. membrane receptor
    hormone binds to channel& activates signaling pathways that make reactions happen
  39. motor molecules
    little legs on cells (thats how the move around )
  40. cofactor
    nonprotein "helper" molecule
  41. substrate
    what goes into the enzyme
  42. denaturation
    a cell comes a part
  43. renaturation
    when the cell comes back together
  44. protein denaturation
    unfolding of a protein due to drops in pH and/ or increased temperature
  45. nucleic acids
    composed of C,H, O,N, and P
  46. polymerization
    process of making polymers
  47. DNA is the one that only contains
    thymine
  48. RNA is the one that only contains
    uracil
  49. genes
    program the amino acid sequence of polypeptides
  50. DNA is ____ into____ which are nucleic acids in action
    copied, RNA
  51. what does DNA do??
    provides instructions for protein synthesis
  52. cell theory
    cells are alive and are the basic unit of organisms

    all organisms are composed of cells

    cells only come from pre-existing cells
  53. what does the plasma membrane do?
    separates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids

    it is a hydrophobic barrier
  54. glycocalyx
    highly specific biological markers by which cells recognize one another
  55. functions of membrane proteins
    • transport
    • enzymatic activity
    • receptors for signal traduction
    • intercellular adhesion(sticking 2gether)
    • cell-cell recognition
    • attachment to cytoskeleton
  56. intergrin
    protein that goes through the membrane

    (channel)
  57. diffusion
    movement from high area of concentration to areas of low concentration
  58. simple diffusion
    move directly thorough the membrane
  59. facilitated diffusion
    stuff moves with the help
  60. active transport
    when things move through the membrane and energy is required

    requires carrier proteins
  61. primary active transport
    hydrolysis of ATP powers the transport
  62. secondary active transport
    A (solute goes down) acuses B( solution to go up) and ATP is in B
  63. vesicular transport
    transport of large particles across membranes

    • exocytosis  (moves out)
    • endocytosis (moves in)
  64. phagocytosis
    vesicular transport when solids come in/out of cell membrane
  65. pinocytosis
    vesiscular transport when liquids come in?out of cell membranes
  66. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    vesicular transport where little receptors that catch molecules and bring them into the cell
  67. signal transduction
    the process of a signal from outside the cell to a functional change in the cell

    membrane receptor triggers the activation of messengers and enzymes
  68. desmosome
    anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cellsa nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells
  69. tight junctions-impermeable junction that encircles the cell

    desmosome- anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cells

    gap junction- a nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells

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