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contain carbon, covalently bonded, and often large
do not contain carbon
ex. water, salts, and many acids and bases
important properties of water
high heat capacity, polar solvent properties, reactivity(important in hydrolysis and dehydration, cushioning (protects body)
- typically inorganic
- contain cations other than h+ and anions other than OH-
- and are electrolytes(they conduct electricity
any substance that INCREASES the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (give protons)
they release H+
any substance that REDUCES hydrogen ion concentration (take protons)
the more protons the____
lower the pH
neutral solutions have what?
equal H+ and OH- concentrations
a substance that minimizes the changes in concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a s solutions.
they protect pH levels
- nucleic acids
biomolecules is also known as what?
forms polymers and takes water out and inputs energy
breaks down polymers by putting water and releasing the energy
carbohydrates contain what?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
what is a carbohydrates main purpose?
to supply a source of cellular food (energy)
what is the carbohydrate's monomer?
they are used directly by cells as fuel
monosaccharides are used as an _____ and polysaccharides are used as___
energy source, energy storage
contain C,H, and O, but the proportions of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates
types of lipids
triglycerides, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, steroids
what are lipids composed of?
3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule (triglyceride)
- makes most cell membranes
- they are a modified trygliceride with 2 fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group
the have a polar head(likes water) and a non polar tail(doestn like water)
flat molecules with 4 interlocking hydrogen rings
cell signaling& growth and development
whats the difference between saturated fats and unsaturated fats?
saturated packs up tightly and clogs up arteries easily
unsaturated are less tight and leave room for blood to flow through
- building blocks for proteins
- each contain and amino acid group and a carboxyl group
what are macromolecules (proteins) composed of?
combinations of 20 types of amino acids
a bunch of amino acids together are?
primary protein structure
a chain of amino acids
secondary protein structure
sheets of amino acids
tertiary protein structure
what determines how the proteins will fold?
the sequence of amino acids
quaternary protein structure
separate polypeptides(proteins) chains linked together in a specific maner
one protein goes wrong (hemoglobin) and now it cant carry as much oxygen
- extended and strandlike
- connect things
hormones and enzymes
type of protein that acts like a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions by lower the activation energy
skeleton (made of proteins) of a cell
hormone binds to channel& activates signaling pathways that make reactions happen
little legs on cells (thats how the move around )
nonprotein "helper" molecule
what goes into the enzyme
a cell comes a part
when the cell comes back together
unfolding of a protein due to drops in pH and/ or increased temperature
composed of C,H, O,N, and P
process of making polymers
DNA is the one that only contains
RNA is the one that only contains
program the amino acid sequence of polypeptides
DNA is ____ into____ which are nucleic acids in action
what does DNA do??
provides instructions for protein synthesis
cells are alive and are the basic unit of organisms
all organisms are composed of cells
cells only come from pre-existing cells
what does the plasma membrane do?
separates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids
it is a hydrophobic barrier
highly specific biological markers by which cells recognize one another
functions of membrane proteins
- enzymatic activity
- receptors for signal traduction
- intercellular adhesion(sticking 2gether)
- cell-cell recognition
- attachment to cytoskeleton
protein that goes through the membrane
movement from high area of concentration to areas of low concentration
move directly thorough the membrane
stuff moves with the help
when things move through the membrane and energy is required
requires carrier proteins
primary active transport
hydrolysis of ATP powers the transport
secondary active transport
A (solute goes down) acuses B( solution to go up) and ATP is in B
transport of large particles across membranes
- exocytosis (moves out)
- endocytosis (moves in)
vesicular transport when solids come in/out of cell membrane
vesiscular transport when liquids come in?out of cell membranes
vesicular transport where little receptors that catch molecules and bring them into the cell
the process of a signal from outside the cell to a functional change in the cell
membrane receptor triggers the activation of messengers and enzymes
anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cellsa nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells
tight junctions-impermeable junction that encircles the cell
desmosome- anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cells
gap junction- a nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells