Cattle- Downer Cows

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
308313
Filename:
Cattle- Downer Cows
Updated:
2015-09-22 13:28:31
Tags:
vetmed cattle
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Description:
vetmed cattle diseases
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  1. Down cow does not equal __________; a down cow is unable to stand after _________, but it can stay _________.
    downer cow syndrome; being recumbant for 24hr; sternal
  2. What is the BSE surveillance program?
    preventing down cattle from entering the food supply since 2004
  3. Cows usually go down in the _________ period.
    peri-parturient
  4. What are the etiologies of down cows? (6M, 2N)
    mastitis, metritis, massive sepsis, metabolic (milk fever, ketosis, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, tetany), mad cow disease, musculoskeletal, neurologic (nerve paralysis), neoplasia (lymphosarcoma)
  5. What are metabolic etiologies of down cows? (5)
    hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, ketosis/hepatic lipidosis
  6. What are clinical findings associated with milk fever? (5)
    tachycardia, weakness, muscle fasciculations, torticollis (head turns to one side), recumbancy
  7. What are clinical signs of hypokalemia? (4)
    generalized weakness, inability to rise, flaccid paralysis, inability to raise head
  8. What is the critical level for hypokalemia in cows?
    ‚ȧ2.5mEq/L in serum
  9. What are 3 pre-disposing factors for hypophosphatemia in cows?
    mid-lactation dairy, Jersey cow, hypocalcemia
  10. What are hematological signs of severe hypophosphatemia?
    hemolysis, hemoglobinuria
  11. Calving paralysis occurs due to compression of _______ to _______ and ________.
    L6 branch; sciatic; obturator nerves
  12. Compression of the L6 branch of the sciatic n. leads to deficits of the ____________.
    hamstring muscles
  13. Compression of the L6 branch of the obturator nerve leads to deficits of the ____________.
    adductor muscles
  14. Compression of the peroneal nerve as it crosses lateral to the stifle at the proximal fibula causes deficits in ___________.
    digital extension
  15. What is the most common neoplastic etiology of a down cow?
    lymphosarcoma due to BLV
  16. Compartment syndrome is damage within an __________, usually associated with ___________ or ___________ (or a combination).
    osteofacial compartment; external compression; internal filling
  17. With compartment syndrome, there is decreased ____________, leading to __________, and ultimately ___________.
    blood flow; ischemia; necrosis
  18. Crush syndrome: muscle damage leading to ___(2)___, which precipitates in the __________, causing ___________.
    increased CPK and myoglobinuria; renal tubules; pigment nephropathy
  19. With crush syndrome, there is evidence of...
    systemic effects of widespread muscle damage.
  20. Describe the progressive deterioration of downer cow syndrome.
    primary recumbancy--> secondary recumbency prom pressure damage, muscle and nerve ischemia--> terminal recumbency from struggling, torn ligaments/muscles
  21. What are signs of interest on the musculoskeletal exam? (4)
    crepitus, abnormal angulation, swellling/heat, pain
  22. Coxofemoral joint evaluation: _________ recumbency; displaced into ___________ on rectal palpation.
    lateral; obturator foramen
  23. What are 2 differentials for a younger calf that is acutely non-weightbearing with marked crepitus?
    capital physeal fracture (slipped capital epiphysis), coxofemoral luxation
  24. Minimize secondary muscle damage to prevent...
    down cows from becoming downer cows.
  25. With hydroflotation of a cow, you run the risk of causing _________.
    mastitis
  26. Why should you avoid Predef in cows?
    associated with severe hypokalemia

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