Cattle- Downer Cows
Card Set Information
Cattle- Downer Cows
vetmed cattle diseases
Down cow does not equal __________; a down cow is unable to stand after _________, but it can stay _________.
downer cow syndrome; being recumbant for 24hr; sternal
What is the BSE surveillance program?
preventing down cattle from entering the food supply since 2004
Cows usually go down in the _________ period.
What are the etiologies of down cows? (6M, 2N)
mastitis, metritis, massive sepsis, metabolic (milk fever, ketosis, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, tetany), mad cow disease, musculoskeletal, neurologic (nerve paralysis), neoplasia (lymphosarcoma)
What are metabolic etiologies of down cows? (5)
hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, ketosis/hepatic lipidosis
What are clinical findings associated with milk fever? (5)
tachycardia, weakness, muscle fasciculations, torticollis (head turns to one side), recumbancy
What are clinical signs of hypokalemia? (4)
generalized weakness, inability to rise, flaccid paralysis, inability to raise head
What is the critical level for hypokalemia in cows?
≤2.5mEq/L in serum
What are 3 pre-disposing factors for hypophosphatemia in cows?
mid-lactation dairy, Jersey cow, hypocalcemia
What are hematological signs of severe hypophosphatemia?
Calving paralysis occurs due to compression of _______ to _______ and ________.
L6 branch; sciatic; obturator nerves
Compression of the L6 branch of the sciatic n. leads to deficits of the ____________.
Compression of the L6 branch of the obturator nerve leads to deficits of the ____________.
Compression of the peroneal nerve as it crosses lateral to the stifle at the proximal fibula causes deficits in ___________.
What is the most common neoplastic etiology of a down cow?
lymphosarcoma due to BLV
Compartment syndrome is damage within an __________, usually associated with ___________ or ___________ (or a combination).
osteofacial compartment; external compression; internal filling
With compartment syndrome, there is decreased ____________, leading to __________, and ultimately ___________.
blood flow; ischemia; necrosis
Crush syndrome: muscle damage leading to ___(2)___, which precipitates in the __________, causing ___________.
increased CPK and myoglobinuria; renal tubules; pigment nephropathy
With crush syndrome, there is evidence of...
systemic effects of widespread muscle damage.
Describe the progressive deterioration of downer cow syndrome.
primary recumbancy--> secondary recumbency prom pressure damage, muscle and nerve ischemia--> terminal recumbency from struggling, torn ligaments/muscles
What are signs of interest on the musculoskeletal exam? (4)
crepitus, abnormal angulation, swellling/heat, pain
Coxofemoral joint evaluation: _________ recumbency; displaced into ___________ on rectal palpation.
lateral; obturator foramen
What are 2 differentials for a younger calf that is acutely non-weightbearing with marked crepitus?
capital physeal fracture (slipped capital epiphysis), coxofemoral luxation
Minimize secondary muscle damage to prevent...
down cows from becoming downer cows.
With hydroflotation of a cow, you run the risk of causing _________.
Why should you avoid Predef in cows?
associated with severe hypokalemia