Chapter 3- Biodiversity Glossary Terms

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hinazahid
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308343
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Chapter 3- Biodiversity Glossary Terms
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2015-10-06 21:53:16
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glossary terms
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Definition and explanation of terms in chapter 3. Like chapter 1 and 2, this will be used for tests and the final exam.
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  1. Biodiversity
    • Is the variety of the different types of life found on Earth
    • Each species helps to maintain a sustainable ecosystem 
    • If one ecosystem is affected, all the other ecosystems can be affected  
    • Important to protect individual species so that all ecosystems remain sustainable
    • Ways to measure biodiversity are canopy fogging, transect sampling and netting
    • Canopy fogging is the use of low doses of insecticide to sample insect populations
    • Transect sampling is the use of a rope through the sampling area and the type and number of species along the line are recorded
    • Netting is when fish mesh nets are used to capture birds and bats in terrestrial ecosystems and other organisms in aquatic ecosystems; after this process, the organisms are released  

  2. Protect
    To keep a species safe from harm so all the other species don't get affected
  3. Biodiversity Hotspot
    • Exists in a place where there is a large number of species in a small area 
    • Example is Carolinian Canada in southwestern Ontario
  4. Community
    • A group of interdependent organisms of different species growing or living together in a specified habitat.
    • Since species depend on interactions, it is important to keep the individual species in that community away from harm
    • Sizes of the community can vary all the time 
    • Certain species have a greater impact on a community or ecosystem due to a high population number or they they preform a critical ecosystem service 
    • Impact food chains or they may physically change the environment 
    • Examples are a pond or a tree
  5. Dominant Species
    • Species that have the largest biomass of any community member 
    • In terrestrial ecosystems, primary consumers are always the dominant species 
    • If there aren't any dominant species, that can result in a decrease in biodiversity within an ecosystem 
    • Most ecological communities are defined by their dominant species
    • Examples of a dominant species would be Caribou, Huassai Palm trees and Kangaroos

  6. Keystone Species
    • A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem 
    • Usually not abundant
    • They can be plants or animals (i.e. sea otter)
    • Without keystone species, the ecosystem will be dramatically different or it wouldn't even exist altogether
    • Without keystone species, new plants could also come into the habitat and push out the native species
    • Often are predators 
    • Herbivores could also be keystone species

  7. Captive Breeding
    • The process of breeding animals in controlled environment within well defined settings like wildlife reserves, zoos and other places 
    • The point of this is to help species that are going extinct, to increase their population
    • Example is young Ferrets
  8. Ecosystem Engineer
    Are species that dramatically change landscapes that they create a new ecosystem

  9. Succession
    The series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time following a disturbance 

  10. Habitat Loss
    • When the habitat is unable to support all the species on it, making all those species lose their habitat due to the habitat altering so much
    • Due to natural disasters or human activities (we clear off land for industrial purposes)
    • Habitat loss reduces biodiversity 
    • When the organisms loses its habitat, the populations carrying capacity lowers in result of risk of extinction
    • Deforestation and draining wetlands are some things that lead up to habitat loss
  11. Deforestation
    • When forests are cleared by humans and are never replanted
    • Eventually leads to habitat loss
    • Deforestation happens for multiple reasons which are, to make room for housing, to harvest timber to create commercial items like paper, to make highly priced oil and to make room for cattle ranching
    • One of the factors to climate change
    • Examples are Brazil, Thailand, etc.

  12. Alien Species
    • Species introduced to new parts of the biosphere from other regions 
    • May be released on purpose or accidentally in shipments of food and other goods
    • Some alien species become invasive species and can easily take over a native species habitat 
    • Examples are Zebra Mussels and Round Gobies 
    • Zebra Mussels are native to Asia, but it got introduced in ballast water in the 1980's; outcome native mussels and other organisms that share the same food as a resource and it impacts other levels in the food chain 
    • Round Gobies got introduced in the late 1980's and it competes with native fish for spawning areas and they eat many aquatic species including snail, other fish, fish eggs which impacts the food chain of the native species
  13. Invasive Species
    • A plant or animal that is not native to a specific location 
    • Spreads very quickly and can cause harm/disturb the ecosystem and other species
    • May put all other species in the ecosystem at risk of extinction 
    • Bring negative affects to the ecosystem/ environment and humans

  14. Overexploitation
    • Is the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted or in other words harvesting species from the wild faster than the population can recover 
    • Examples could be over fishing of Atlantic Cod and over hunting of Passenger Pigeons 
    • Overexploitation can result in the extinction of a species (e.g. passenger pigeons)

  15. Extinction
    • When all the individuals of a species die
    • Can happen naturally through background extinction, caused by changes in the ecosystem that affects the species
    • Can also happen through mass extinction, which occurs more quickly (e.g. the extinction of dinosaurs was a mass extinction)
    • It can be caused by human actions like exploitation
    • Currently, the extinction rate is estimated to be 100 to 1000 times higher than a normal background rate, many species risk extinction causing a biodiversity crisis (definition is in next card)
  16. Biodiversity Crisis
    • It is the current accelerated rate of extinctions on Earth
    • It is predicted that biodiversity crisis had been resulted from the action of humans
    • These activities lead to deforestation, habitat loss and air and water pollution are changing the abiotic and biotic conditions in ecosystems 
    • Sometimes, the condition changes so much that organisms are unable to cope with change and end up dying
  17. Restoration Ecology
    • It is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged or destroyed ecosystems and habitats 
    • This happens through active human intervention and action 
    • Some restoration methods are reforestation (see definition on the next card) and wetlands restoration is a process in which a wetland is returned to its natural state in terms of soil quality and composition, water coverage and the type of plants that grow there (it is to the greatest extent possible)

  18. Reforestation
    • It is the regrowth of a forest that was cut down
    • It can happen either through natural process or through the replanting of seeds or trees where the forest was cut down
    • Can be used to improve the quality of human life by getting rid of pollution and it can improve some ecosystems because they are being supplied with more resources and habitat now

  19. Biocontrol
    • Is the use of a species that is used to control the population of the growth or spread of an undesirable species (alien species)
    • Examples of biocontrol are the use of European fly to control the Gypsy Moth or the use of bacteria spraying to control tent caterpillars and other forest pests
    • Different from chemical control because with chemical control, it is the use of chemicals to get rid of pests but biocontrol is the use of species to get rid of an alien species
  20. Bioremediation
    • The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally 
    • Waste management technique
    • Examples are the use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soil or the use of bacteria to clean up spills on the coast
  21. Bioaugmentation
    • The use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils
    • An example of this is the use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soils
    • Bioaugmentation develops the biological material in order to smoothly break down certain compounds


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