Unit 1 Inductive Arguments
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What are the inductive argument types? (6)
- Argument from analogy
- Argument from authority
- Argument based on signs
- Causal inference
What is an inductive argument?
group of statements in which one or more (premises) claims to support one of the others (conclusion) with logical probability
an argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future.
Argument from analogy
an argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or similarity, between two things or states of affairs.
is an argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group.
argument from authority
argument that concludes something is true because a presumed expert or witness has said that it is
Argument based on signs
an argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes
argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or, conversely, from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause
an inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
an inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
- inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises. - premises must be true in the sense of meeting the total evidence
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