Ecology-Unit 1: Chapter 1

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  1. Ecosystems
    • all interacting parts of a biological community, and that communities environment
    • organisms can depend on multiple ecosystems to survive
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    an ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms
  3. Biotic
    • -all living or recently living parts of an ecosystem
    • -includes all interactions among the living things in the ecosystem
  4. Abiotic
    • -theseare the non-living parts of an ecosystem that organisms need to survive 
    • (water, air, light, chemical nutrients, soil)
  5. Lithosphere
    • hard part of Earth's surface 
    • includes rock and soil
  6. Hydrosphere
    • liquid part of Earth's surface
    • salt ocean waters, fresh water lakes, rivers
  7. Atmosphere
    • layer of gasses above Earth's surface
    • air
  8. Biosphere
    • living part of Earth's surface
    • life in soil, water, and air 
    • not separate from other abiotic spheres
  9. Nutrients
    Chemicals needed by a variety of organisms
  10. Eutrophication
    the process of adding nitrogen or phosphorus to an ecosystem so it's pushed beyond sustainability
  11. Photosynthesis
    conversion of solar energy to chemical energy to be used as food
  12. Trophic level
    categories of organisms defined by how the organism gains energy
  13. Biomass
    the total mass of a living organisms in a defined group or area
  14. Trophic efficiency
    a measure of the amount of energy or biomass transfered from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level
  15. Bioaccumulation
    • a process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than can be eliminated
    • toxins from human made pollution can be destructive to a species
    • e.i. DDT, PCB's
  16. Biomagnification
    the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular respiration
    • consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide
    • contrast to photosynthesis
  18. Fermentation
    • when oxygen is absent or under anaerobic conditions and energy is needed
    • humans fermentation is lactic acid
  19. Greenhouse gases
    • water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane
    • traps energy from the sun that would otherwise escape
    • natural insulation so planet can sustain life
  20. Greenhouse effect
    • burning of fossil fuels of biomass created by photosynthesis billions of years ago 
    • the burning releases the large amounts of energy stored inside
  21. Acid precipitation
    • fossil fuels burning releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide
    • these gasses combine with water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid
    • these acids lower the normal pH of precipitation that eventually decends as acid precipitation
    • e.i. rain, sleet, snow, hail
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Ecology-Unit 1: Chapter 1
2015-09-23 15:31:42
science ecology chapter1 unit1

Unit 1: Chapter 1
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