AP Language and Composition Terms

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  1. Audience
    listener, viewer, or reader of a text. most texts have multiple audiences.
  2. Concession
    an acknowledgement that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable. in a strong argument, a concession is usually accompanied by a refutation challenging the validity of the opposing argument.
  3. Connotation
    meaning or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition, or denotation. connotations are usually positive or negative, and they can greatly affect the author's tone.
  4. Context
    the circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text.
  5. Counterargument
    an opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward. rather than ignoring a counterargument, a strong writer will usually address it through the process of concession and refutation.
  6. Ethos
    appealing to credibility and trustworthiness and authority to speak on a given topic. it is established by both who you are and what you say.
  7. Logos
    appeal to reasoning by using clear, rational ideas and specific details, examples, facts, statistics, or expert testimony to back them up.
  8. Occasion
    the time and place a speech is given or a piece is written.
  9. Pathos
    appeal to emotionally motivate audience. may play on audience's values, desires, and hopes, or fears and prejudices.
  10. Persona
    the face or character that a speaker shows to the audience.
  11. Polemic
    an aggressive argument that tries to establish the superiority of one opinion over all others. polemics generally do no concede that opposing opinions have any merit.
  12. Propaganda
    the spread of ideas and information to further a cause. in its negative sense, it is the use of rumors, lies, disinformation, and scare tactics in order to damage or promote a cause.
  13. Purpose
    the goal the speaker wants to achieve.
  14. Refutation
    a denial of the validity of an opposing argument. in order to sound reasonable, it often follows a concession that acknowledges that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable.
  15. Rhetoric
    the art of finding ways to persuade an audience.
  16. SOAPS
    a mnemonic device that stands for Subject, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, and Speaker. it helps to remember the various elements that make up the rhetorical situation.
  17. speaker
    the person or group who creates the text.
  18. Subject
    the topic of a text.
  19. text
    a broad term to mean any cultural product that can be "read."
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AP Language and Composition Terms
2015-09-23 17:15:48

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