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What do endothelial cells release to vasodilate and inhibit plt aggregation & adhesion & degranulation?
What is AT-III?
- made in liver
- binds to heparin to form heparin-sulfate system
What is heparin-sulfate system?
binds to thrombin and stops clotting
What is MCV?
- Mean corpuscular volume
- (size of RBC)
Bone marrow aspirations are good diagnostic tests for what?
- certain anemias
- plt DO
- imunoglobulin DO
_______ removes the liquid portion of BM; where ______ removes the solid portion.
Newborns have the same number of _____ as they will as adults.
How to test for pernicious anemia?
- blood test for ab or
- gastric bx for HCl
What is sideroblastic anemia?
- Micro- or macrocytic, hypochromic
- altered mitochondrial metabolism (where Hgb is made) =
- ineffective Fe uptake =
- dysfunctional heme synthesis in BM
Increased iron levels, enlarged liver & spleen can be indicative of what?
RBCs are of various sizes
RBCs are various SHAPES
- lg cell, normal Hb!!
- Vit B12 or Folate deficiency
- DNA defect, normal RNA
- *Pernicious Anemia* (no intrinsic factor)
Why would you do a gastric biopsy to test for Pernicious Anemia?
to test for HCl in the stomach. HCl is secreted by parietal cells.
- small cells, decreased Hgb
- DO r/t iron metabolism & Hgb breakdown
- *Iron Deficiency Anemia*
S/S of iron deficiency anemia
- ridged & coarse nails
- bald, fissured tongue
Cause of secondary polycythemia.
- chronic hypoxia, causing increased EPO
- 1) EPO-secreting tumors
- 2) abnormal Hgb w/ increased affinity for O2