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How does the cavity of the bony thorax relate to the thoracic cavity?
Larger, dome of the diaphragm extends into the bony thorax to the 6th intercostal space (encases abdomen).
The descending duodenum is on which side of the abdomen?
Where is the cecum located?
Right side between small and rest of large intestine.
List three different types of peritoneum.
Parietal (wall), visceral, and connecting.
How are the mesenteries (connecting peritoneum) named?
"Meso" + organ connected.
Where are the ovaries located in carnivores?
Caudal to the kidneys in the sublumbar region.
What is the suspensory ligament in carnivores?
Part of the broad ligament connecting the ovary to the last 1 or 2 ribs.
What is the fornix of the vagina?
Ventral recess formed by the cervix projecting into the vagina.
Describe the cat's scrotum's location and appearance.
Perineal (close to anus), densely covered by hair.
What is the relationship of the ductus deferens to the ureters?
Loops dorsally over the ureters ("water under the bridge").
What is the inguinal canal?
Passageway through the caudal abdominal wall.
Name the three main parts of the vaginal tunic.
Visceral, parietal, and connecting vaginal tunic.
The vaginal cavity is continuous with the _____ at the vaginal ring.
On which side of the spermatic cord is the ductus deferens?
What is the definition of an artery? A vein?
- Artery - vessels that travel away from the heart
- Veins - towards the heart
Which specific large veins return blood from roughly the cranial and caudal part of the body directly to the heart?
Cranial vena cava and caudal vena cava.
What are the chambers of the heart in the order they receive blood?
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle.
Which side of the heart is part of the pulmonic circulation?
Which side of the heart is part of the systemic circulation?
What is the outflow of the heart (left side) to the body?
What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face?
Common carotid arteries.
Which veins return blood from the head and neck?
External jugular veins.
Name the three unpaired branches to the abdominal viscera of the abdominal aorta?
Celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries.
Name the main branches (arteries) of the terminal aorta.
2 External iliac (to the pelvic limb), 2 internal iliac (to the pelvis), and 1 median sacral (to the tail).
What is the main artery supplying the uterus?
What vessels supply the ventral abdominal wall? Where do they run?
Cranial and caudal epigastric vessels; they run on the ventral abdomen, on either side of the midline.
What is the direction continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abdominal cavity to the pelvic limb for which it is the main supply?
What is the vascular supply to the ovary?
Ovarian artery and vein in mesovarium.
What is the large vein draining the intestine to the sinusoids of the liver?
Where do the ovarian or testicular veins drain?
Right: into the caudal vena cava; left: into the left renal vein (to avoid crossing the aorta).
Which vessel crosses the ventral surface of the adrenal gland and thus, is a surgical landmark for finding this structure?
Where is the cephalic vein located?
On the cranial surface of the forearm.
What is the vein on the ventral surface of the tail that is the direct continuation of the medial sacral vein?
Median caudal vein.
What are the two superficial veins of the pelvic limb?
Medial and lateral saphenous veins.
What vein is on the either side of the ventral surface of the tongue?
Lingual vein, the sublingual vein is on the floor of the mouth.
Describe the thoracic duct.
The major lymphatic vessel returning most of the lymph collected in the body back into the general circulation at the venous angle.
List the superficial lymph nodes of the body.
Parotid; mandibular, superficial cervical; popliteal, and superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
What lymph node is located near the end of the aorta above the descending colon?
Medial iliac lymph nodes.
The skin consists of what two layers?
Epidermis and dermis.
The two layers of the skin (dermis and epidermis) lie on the _______.
Subcutaneous layer, superficial fascia, subcutis; hypodermis, SQ or SC.
Where is the skin thin? Where is the skin thick?
What is another name for eyelids?
What is the function of the pupil?
Control light coming into the eye.
What is the flap of skin inside the medial part of the eyelids?
Third eyelid (nictitating membrane).
How can you get the third eyelid to cross the eye for examination?
Open the palpbral fissure and press the eyeball through the lateral upper lid.
How can the mouth be opened to look in the oral cavity?
Grasp the upper jaw with one hand and push down on the incisors with a finger of the other.
What are the large, shearing teeth of dogs and cats?
Carnassial or sectorial teeth (upper premolar 4 and lower molar 1).
Describe the external ear canal.
Two parts, vertical part passes down, takes a sharp turn and continues as the horizontal part to the ear drum (tympanic membrane).
What is the pocket of skin in the caudal edge of the ear?
What do the costal cartilages of the ribs caudal to the sternum form?
What remains of the entrance of the umbilical cord?
Umbilicus or belly button (faint scar).
How many mammae does the dog usually have?
8 to 10 or 4/5 pairs.
What is the lateral abdominal area between the back legs?
What is the most dorsal portion of the flank?
What are the boundaries of the perineum?
Base of the tail, Tuber ischii, Past the vulva (female), to the base of the scrotum.
Where are the openings of the anal sacs (clock-faced analogy)?
4 and 8 o'clock position.
What is the depression on either side of the anus?
Where would you find the tibia and fibula?
Crus or true leg (gaskin).
Where is the clitoris found?
In the ventral commissure of labia.
What is the picture taken by a radiographic machine called?
Radiograph or film, not an X-ray.
Why isn't X-ray an appropiate term for a radiograph/film?
Can't see X-rays.
What is evaluated in a radiograph?
Shape and density.
What can eliminate needing to think about the inverse square rule?
UsING standard distances for different techniques (technique chart) eliminates distance as a variable.
How do you minimize the distortion of divergence in radiology?
Always place the part/side of interest against the cassette so it will be sharp and close to actual size.
How do the five different radiographic densities appear on film?
Air = black; Fat = black, Water = shades of grey; bone = white; and Metal = white.
What are the five B's that aid in remembering density differences?
Bubbles, Blubber, Blood, Bone, and Bullet = Air, Fat, Water, Bone, and Metal.
What is required to see structures in a radiograph that touch each other?
Differences in densities between them.
How is fat a friend when reading radiographs?
More radiolucent = contasts soft tissues (e.g., perirenal fat around the kidney).
Define the following radiographic terms:
a. Increased opacity
b. Decreased opacity
e. Increased radiolucency
- a. Whiter shadow than expected caused by an increased subject density or size.
- b. Darker shadow than expected, due to a decrease in the subject density or size.
- c. Dark, a structure allowing most of the X-rays to pass through it, resulting in a dark shadow.
- d. White, a structure that blocks most of the X-rays resulting in a white shadow.
- e. Darker, caused by a decreased density or size of a subject.
What is the general rule in preparing the animal to take good radiographs?
Minimal amount of movement.
Discuss minimal amount of movement when taking radiographs.
Varies with type of radiograph: from minimal restraint, to sedation, or anesthetized (eg., spine films).
What does and does not lead protect against in relationship to radiology?
Does: scatter; doesn't: primary beam.
What is often imagined in radiographs but can't be seen, as it is a 2-D image?
Do not try to read or see depth.
How are radiographic views named?
Where the beam enters and exits the body/part.
Describe how the beam enters and exits the body in the following view:
a. Right or left lateral projections of major body cavities (abdomen, thorax):
b. DV/dorsoventral and VD/ventrodorsal projections:
c. Craniocaudal (CrCa) or anterior/posterior (AP) projections:
d. DP/dorsopalmar (dorsoplantar) PD or palmarodorsal (plantarodorsal) projections:
- a. Named for the surface closest to the cassette (beam exit point).
- b. DV: beam enters the dorsal surface and exits the ventral. VD: enters the vental and exits the dorsal.
- c. Beam enters the cranial/anterior side and exits the caudal/posterior surface (back) of the limb above the carpus/tarsus.
- d. DP: shot from the "front to back" (dorsal to the palmar side) below the proximal end of the carpus (tarsus); PD: beam through the palmar/plantar side and out the dorsal side below the proximal end of the carpus (tarsus).
What do lead "R" and "L" markers indicate on a radiograph?
Patient's side placed on the film/"down" side of body in VD and DV films, or which limb if there is only one limb in the film.
What should always be used to check if the markers on a film are correct?
What side of the body or limbs are the following anatomical landmarks?
a. Apex of the heart
b. Gas bubble in the fundus of the stomach
c. Descending colon
d. Cranial kidney; caudal kidney
e. Anticlinical vertebra - vertical vertebrae
f. Head of the humerus
i. Distal end of the ulna
j. Accessory carpal bone
k. Dew claw
- a. Left
- b. Left
- c. Left
- d. Right; left
- e. Usually T11 in dogs
- f. Caudal
- g. Cranial
- h. Caudal
- i. Lateral and caudal
- j. Lateral and palmar
- k. Medial
- l. Cranial
- m. Lateral
- n. Lateral and plantar
What is the survival law when reading radiographs?
Read in a systematic manner.
What helps you orient the views and indicate the direction of the beam?
What view silhouettes lateral and medial limb structures?
Craniocaudally, dorsopalmar, or dorsoventral.
Since a radiograph is a 2-D representation of a 3-D object, how is the third dimension extrapolated?
At least two radiographs must be taken at 90 degresss to each other.
The different views ______ different sides of the bones.
What does the lateral view silhouette?
Cranial and caudal surfaces of bones.
Is cartilage seen radiographically?
No, only inferred.
Since cartilage can't be seen radiographically, how is it evaluated?
Check subchondral bone.
What is the space seen between bones in a radiograph?
Joint space and articular cartilage.
What is the composition of most long bones at birth?
Bones capped at both ends with articular cartilage, 2 cartilaginous discs between the diaphysis and the 2 epiphyses.
What are the cartilaginous discs between the diaphysis and epiphyses?
Epiphyseal, metaphyseal, or growth plates; or physes.
Where does lengthening of the bone occur?
Epiphyseal side of the metaphyseal plate.
During growth, how does the physis appear radiographically?
As a radiolucent line (dark line).
What should not be mistaken for fractures radiographically?
Physeal lines or sesamoid bones.
What is a normal remnant of the closed physis?