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Where is the ONLY place to give an IV injection on a horse?
the jugular vein
What part of the neck is best to draw from? and why?
- cranial 1/3 of the neck
- less likely to hit a carotid artery (which runs along side the jugular vein)
NEVER give an IV medication without doing what first? Especially in horses?
double checking that it is the correct medication
How can large bore needles (18gauge) help differentiate between veins and arteries in horses?
- If string is removed:
- blood dripping: jugular
- blood spurting: artery
What are some symptoms in horses of an adverse reaction to an IV injection?
mild sweating, urticaria (hives), colic, respiratory distress, collapse and death
What is the appropriate size needle for cattle jugular venipuncture?
- 16-18 gauge
- 1 1/2" length
How to restrain cattle for jugular venipuncture
- Cattle should be haltered and restrained in a chute or stanchion
- tie head off to one side
How to restrain sheep, calves or goats for jugular venipuncture
pinned against a wall and then immoblizing the head with both hands
How to restrain Swine 40lbs for jugular venipuncture?
restrained using a hog snare
What are some typical signs of vaccine reactions
- Facial swelling
- anaphylaxis (rare)
What do you use for non life threatening reactions to vaccines?
- Corticosteroids and Antihistamines
- give IM (IV if needed)
What do you use for life threatening reactions to vaccines?
How do administer insulin?
SG along lateral abdomen and thorax
What are the two types of insulin syringes used?
- U-40 (40 units per cc concentration)
- U-100 (100 units per cc concentration)
What is important to have right when administering insulin which could be life threatening.
The types of syringes match the insulin used (size indication on bottle)!
What do intravenous catheters allow when administering medication?
Access to circulating blood for fluids, nutrients, and blood products.
What are the common veins are IV catheters are inserted into?
The longer the catheter the more ___
stable it is in the vessel and less likely to cause irritation
When placing a catheter select the ____ size possible without causing ____
When placing a catheter select the largest size possible without causing significant vascular trauma or stress
Winged infusion sets are used in a patient needing what?
- multiple intravenous medications (chemotherapeutic agents)
- but not long term fluid therapy
What is a benefit to butterfly catheters? Some problems?
- benefit: fewest local infections
- Problem: cause irritation, may perforate vessel
How do you administer oral administration to a horse?
- The syringe is placed through the side of the mouth in the space between the incisors and premolars
- Medication is deposited on the caudal portion of the tongue if possible
When do you use a nasogastric intubation on a horse?
- Can't chew or swallow normally (gastro track still works)
- Large volumes of medication needed to deliver to stomach
IN a horse when the nasal membranes bleed when passing a tube what might you have hit?
WHat should you NEVER do when passing a nasal tube in a horse?
force it if not passing easily
Most basic outline for passing a nasal tube in a horse: (6 steps)
- 1) Lubricate with water soluble jelly/or water
- 2) Insert w/ 1 hand, other lead tube through most ventral nasal passage
- 3) Once to pharynx, lower horse head and flex neck to allow entrance of tube to esophagus
- 4) Pass to stomach (noted by odor, make sure!)
- 5) Check gastric reflux
- 6) medicate
What will you see if tube is passed to esophagus? If not?
- Esophagus: horse swallowing
- Trachea: horse resist/cough and will rattle
How many liters of fluids can a horse contain?
What must you do BEFORE taking out a nasal tube?
make sure all fluid is removed from it
how do you get rid of access liquid in the tube?
- Pump/blow a small amount of air through the tube while it is in the stomach
- kink the end of tube/place finger over the end while it’s being removed
When do you need a whole Blood Transfusion?
severe blood loss or neonatal isoerythrolysis
Steps to eye medicating a horse: (3 steps)
- 1) restrain, pry open eyelid (touch outlet eyelid only)
- 2) Place small bad into lower conjunctival sac
- 3) Lavage system can be placed in upper eyelid (use black cup to protect eye