eco and evo 3

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xijunzhu
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308493
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eco and evo 3
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2015-09-29 20:18:01
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  1. where are fossils found
    near water, where oxygen is low, so that bacteria can't decompose organism as quickly
  2. what method of fossilization keeps soft tissues?
    freezing
  3. carbonization
    soft parts may be preserved through distillation under heat and pressure which preferentially removes hydrogen and oxygen
  4. how are fossils biased?
    • hard parts
    • some environments
    • limited anatomical snapshot
    • stratigraphic incomplete and pull to present
    • taxonomy (more complex organisms, we can gain more info)
    • dating
  5. glossopetrae
    shark teeth discovered by steno
  6. which dinosaurs gave parental care?
    maiasaurus
  7. how to genome size of animal?
    looking at cell size
  8. why is fossil dating difficult?
    composed of products of erosion of other rocks (chimeras), not amenable to isotope based dating techniques
  9. how is the ideal formation for dating rocks?
    fossil bearing sedimentary strata are sandwiched between layers of volcanic rock that can be dated using isotopic means
  10. what does fossils tell us
    • extinction events
    • once closely related species lived together, but land drifted apart
  11. what are mass extinctions?
    • when at least 50% of organisms go extinct
    • trigger by climate
  12. ordovician silurian extinction
    • 25% of marine families and 60% of marine genera
    • Gondwana shift, temp decrease, sea level decrease
    • 2/3 brachiopod and bryozoans disappearedĀ 
    • 450mya
  13. late devonian
    • 374 mya
    • 19% families, 50% genera, 75% of species
    • corals, protoamphibians
    • plants colonized the land, CO2 and temp decreased
  14. permian triassic
    • 250 mya
    • 53% marine families
    • 84% marine genera
    • 95% of marine species, 70% land species
    • increase in volcanic activity in Siberian Traps, release of methane from sea floor, shifts in ocean currents, anoxia, increased temp
  15. jurassic triassic
    • 200 mya
    • 23% of families, 48% of genera
    • increased volcanic activity
    • decrease in speciation, but plants and dinosaurs did well
  16. cretaceous triassic
    • 65 mya
    • extinction of 50% of genera, 75% of species
    • asteroid
    • decline in body size (delidaput)
  17. Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction
    • 56mya
    • increase in temp and CO2
  18. Holocene
    • lost rhino, passenger pigeonĀ 
    • happening now
  19. pikaia
    • first known chordate
    • has notocord: flexible rod shaped body
  20. what was cope's rule?
    population lineages tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time
  21. largest land animal ever
    indricotherium
  22. what is one problem of cope's rule?
    selective reading of artifact?
  23. what are reasons for mammals to get bigger?
    • predation
    • sexual competition
    • energetic efficiency
  24. what caused the cambrian explosion?
    • increase in oxygen (increase in size and metabolic rates)
    • origin of hard parts
    • evolution of eyes
    • genetic changes (activation of homeotic genes for transcription factors that control body plans)
  25. adaptive radiation by Mayr
    evolutionary divergence of members of a single phyletic line into a series of rather diff niches or adaptive zones
  26. who proposed punctuate equilibrium
    • Gould and Eldredge
    • to account for gaps in fossil record
  27. lagerstatten
    • sedimentary deposit with exceptionally good fossils from anoxic environments and minimal bacteria decomposition
    • soft parts preserved
  28. what does a taxonomic bias mean?
    more complex animals we can get more info from
  29. what does hallucigenia looks like
    pointy stuff in the back, legs on bottom to move
  30. halkiera
    with teeth in back
  31. which animal had 40 ft wingspan
    quetzalcoatus
  32. who is dodo
    duck
  33. quagga
    zebra like
  34. what are some other things going extinct now
    Mexican grizzly bear, passenger pigeon, caribbean monk seal, western black rhino, tasmanian tiger, stellar sea cow
  35. what is interesting about probability of extinction over time
    constant over time
  36. what is the significance of edicacaran fauna
    predate the cambrian explosion
  37. what are three biases in the fossil?
    geographic, taxonomic and temporal
  38. what was significant about burgess shale
    • all but one of the 35 existing phyla appeared
    • walcott 520 mya
  39. when did ediacaran fauna appear
    560 soft bodied
  40. what was great about increased oxygen content in seawater?
    • allowed organisms to achieve increased sizes and metabolic rates
    • prerequisite for evolution of predators
  41. where did eyes first appear
    trilobites 543 MYA
  42. what are two characteristics of punctuated equilibrium
    • periods of rapid morphological change with rapid speciation
    • after species have formed, they exhibit stasis
  43. how does PE explain stasis compared to PG?
    • genetic homeostasis and/or developmental constraint.
    • PG explains in terms of stabilizing selection
  44. how does evolutionary change come to play between PE and PG?
    • significant evolutionary change occurs in association with speciation
    • PG says change within lineages
  45. what is the difference in speciation between PE and PG?
    • speciation is non-adaptive process entailing some kind of genetic revolution
    • while PG, speciation is simple corollary of adaptive change
  46. what is adaptation
    genetic change in an environment

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