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What is HF?
The inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the tissues for oxygen and nutrients.
What are some RFs?
- Lung Disease
- Thyroid disease
- Drugs (cocaine)
- Increased Metabolic Rate
What are some compensatory mechanisms?
- SNS: increases HR
- RAAS: release of aldosterone to retain fluid and constrict vessels.
- ANP/BNP: hormones released by atria or ventricle to increase fluid volume.
- *High BNP indicates HF.
- Vent dilation/hypertrophy: increases cellular growth.
What is the main point of the pathophys of HF?
Decreased CO and Increased demand for O2.
What is used for Diagnostic Studies?
Echocardiogram: *ejection fraction, size, shape, valves.
- Labs: electrolytes, CBC, kidney, liver, thyroid
*The side of the heart that is failing determines the Sx.
Clincial Manifestations of Right Sided HF?
- Viscera and peripheral congestion
- Jugular venous distention (JVD)
- Dependent edema
- Weight gain
Clincial Manifestations of Left Sided HF?
- Pulmonary congestion, crackles
- S3 or “ventricular gallop”
- Dyspnea on exertion
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
- Dry, nonproductive cough initially
See s/sx of hypo/hyper Kalemia.