BIO&251: Chapter 1

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tgherasim
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BIO&251: Chapter 1
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2015-09-28 16:19:59
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BIO&251
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Study guide for Chapter 1
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  1. List and Define 5 Characteristics to all forms of life.
    • Growth is a characteristic that shows how an organism increases from a small to large size, such as the increase in the number of cells.
    • Inheritance (DNA) is another characterstic which shows the traits that have been passed down from out parents.
    • Movement is a characteristic that shows something with life in it can move from one place to another.
    • Reproduction is a characteristic of showing how a new life comes to be from a sperm and egg.
    • Organization is a characteristic that describes  how different forms of life have a certain level of structure and order.
  2. Levels of Biological Organization
    Cells are the smallest form of living units in the body which are made up of macromolecules and contain Organelles (these are little organs inside the cells such as ribosomes or the mitochondria). Each cell as a specific function and when a group of cells come together, they form Tissue which can then perform one or more specific functions (nervous, epithelial, connective, etc). When two or more tissues come together, they then form an Organ. After a group of organs then come together, they form an Organ System which performs a specific job in the body, such as the heart pushing out blood into our vessels.
  3. Homeostasis
    • The maintenance of relatively constant conditions in the internal environment in the face of environmental change.
    • It is NOT the same as equilibrium.
  4. Negative Feedback Control System
    • The stimulus and response are in opposite directions.
    • For example, there is a stimulus coming from the brain that is sent to the salivary glands when you're hungry and smell food, the the mouth begins to salivate. After food is eaten, there is a response sent back to the brain that food has been consumes and the salivary glands can stop doing their job.
  5. Positive Feedback Control System
    • The stimulus and response are in the same direction.
    • For example, after being wounded and you're bleeding, that area of the body sends signals for help. Platelets are then sent to the wounded area to clot, so as to stop the bleeding, but even after the signals have been sent, platelets are still sent until the area is completely clotted. After the bleeding subsides, the feedback stops because no more signals have been sent.
  6. Feedforward Control Mechanism
    Changes the set point; controller makes a prediction about the future value of the controlled variable.
  7. Anatomical Position
    • The standard reference of the human form.
    • This concept is useful because it gives a sense of direction as to where different parts of the body are located.
  8. Anabolism
    • The building up of complex molecules from simpler ones.
    • Requires an input of energy.
    • Example: stringing amino acids together to form a protein.
    • (Study Tip: ANABOLIC steroids).
  9. Anatomy and Physiology Def.
    • Anatomy: "to cut", the study of structure.
    • Physiology: "nature", the study of function.
    • A&P: The study of structure and function.
  10. Autoregulation and Extrinsic Regulation
    • Mechanisms of homeostasis
    • Autoregulation: A process that occurs when a type of system automatically adjusts to some environmental change.
    • Extrinsic Regulation: A process of activities that occur from either the nervous (electrical signal) or endocrine system (chemical signal). Either signals are sent to adjust activities.
  11. Catabolism
    • The breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones.
    • Releases energy.
    • Example: breaking glucose down into its individual chemical form.
    • (Study Tip: CATASTROPHE)
  12. Controlled Variable
    The portion that can be changed to the desired value of the set point.
  13. Differentiation
    • As development proceeds, cells and other organs in our body will have new functions that will make them distinct from each other.
    • Example: Stem cells
  14. Error Signal
    The difference between the set point and the actual value.
  15. Extracellular, Intercellular, Interstitial, and Intracellular Fluid
    • Extracellular: Fluid OUTSIDE of the cells.
    • Intercellular: Fluid IN BETWEEN the cells.
    • Interstitial: Fluid FLILLING UP the spaces between the cells.
    • Intracellular: Fluid INSIDE the cells.
  16. Internal Environment
    • Inside our bodies and the different systems that can be affected.
    • Organs, tissues, blood, etc.
  17. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical reactions occurring within an organism.
  18. Resposiveness
    • How a particular part of our bodies react in certain situations.
    • Whether they react slowly or quickly.
  19. Set Point
    • The desired value of a controlled variable.
    • The controller determines it.
  20. Controller
    • Part of homeostasis.
    • Determines the set point.
    • Computes an error signal.
    • Receives information from the Receptor.
    • Sends appropriate instructions to Effector.
    • I.E. A thermostat (can control the temperature of the room).
  21. Effector
    • Part of homeostasis.
    • Receives instructions from the controller.
    • Effects a change in the controlled variable.
    • Reports what the actual value is.
    • DOES NOT know the set point.
    • I.E. Air conditioner is turned on (effect) when the thermostat says that the temp is low.
  22. Receptor
    • Part of homeostasis.
    • Monitors the actual value of a controlled variable.
    • Constantly sends information to the controller.
    • Does NOT "know" what the value should be.
    • I.E. The thermometer that can tell when the normal temp of homeostasis has been disturbed.
  23. Describe how anatomy and physiology are closely related?
    Anatomy and Physiology are closely related because all specific functions are performed by specific structures.
  24. Why is it difficult to separate anatomy from physiology?
    It is difficult to separate anatomy from physiology because the structures of body parts are so closely related to their functions.
  25. Identify (name) the major levels of organization from the simplest to the most complex?
    • Chemical (Macromolecule)
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  26. Why is homeostatic regulation important to an organism?
    It prevents potentially disruptive changes in the body's internal environment and makes sure that the body can function normally under its carefully controlled conditions.
  27. Define Equilibrium
    Dynamic (constantly changing) state in which two opposing forces or processes are in balance.
  28. What is the purpose of anatomical terms?
    Anatomical terms are there to provide a standardized frame of reference for describing the human body.

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