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There are four types of chromatophores.
What is different about birds and mammals?
they do not contain chromatophores but instead have a type of cell called a melanocyte
Both __ and __ have the same __ present in the __.
chondrichtyes and osteichtyes
Fish mostly contain the __ but a few __ and __ can also be present.
chromatophore dermal melanophore
Some fish can change color due to __.
extraction and contraction of chromatophores
Explain pigmentation in amphibians.
Chromatophores are only found in the dermis
contain dermal melanophores
few iridophores and xantophores present
some are also able to change skin color by changing chromatophore dispersion
Explain pigmentation in reptiles.
pigments are found in epidermis
contain both dermal and epidermal melanophores (epidermal melanophores are most abundant)
very fw iridiophores and xantophores may be present in the dermis
Explain pigmentation in birds
located at teh dermis and epidermis
have melanocytes, which add color to feathers and keratinized cells
also contain carotenoids and porphyris, which give color but are not chromatophores. These pigments are obtained by food or AA modificaitons
These other pigmentations allow for different refraction angles causing non-iridescent and iridescent colors
Explain pigmentation in mammals
only contain melanocytes
located in the epidermis
melanin is carried into the stratum corneum and gives hair color
skin color combination of the stratum corneum, the red underlying BV, and the melanocytes
Basic function of glands
help protect the integument and regulate cell and organ activity
In all vertebrae except fish, most of the glands are __
derived from the stratum germinativum and later travel into the dermis
Fish glands are :
3) type of type
5) special characteristic
found in epidermis of both chondrichthyes and osteichthytes
club, goblet, sacciform, and ___
help secrete the mucous cuticle
only a few osteichthyes contain granular (poison) glands
1) type of gland
2) location of gland
4) special characteristic
1) multicellular glands
2) located in dermis but reach the surface via ducts that pierce the cornified layer
3) glands help to secrete the surface
4) during the larvae stage, only Leydig cells (immune function) are present; during the adult stage, mucous and poison (granular) glands are present
3) function of the one gland
4) function of the other gland
- 1) few glands-- urophygial and salt glands
- 2) located in dermis
- 3) uropygial (oil): secretes lipid protein product that is collected ont eh sides of the beaks and smeared on the feathers; the uropygial gland acts as a water repellant to help in aviation
- 4) salt gland is located at head and it excretes excess salt
located in dermis
types: sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine
2) gland amount
1) glands not well understood but is hypothesized that they play a role in protection and mating
2) fewer skin glands than in amphibians
3) glands are restricted to certain areas of the body