ACE Fitness Human Anatomy

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caseylundy
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308574
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ACE Fitness Human Anatomy
Updated:
2015-09-26 15:30:09
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Human Anatomy ACE Fitness
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ACE Fitness Human Anatomy
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  1. Define Anterior
    Toward the front

  2. Define Posterior
    Toward the back

  3. Define Superior
    Toward the head

  4. Define Inferior
    Away from the head

  5. Define Medial
    Toward the midline of the body

  6. Define Lateral
    Away from the midline of the body

  7. Define Proximal
    Toward the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure, or midline of the body

  8. Define Distal
    Away from the attache end of the limb, origin of the structure, or midline of the body

  9. Identify the plane of motion for #1 and give an example of an exercise or movement that takes place in each plane.

    Saggital Plane: Biceps curl

  10. Identify the plane of motion for #2 and give an example of an exercise or movement that takes place in each plane.

    Frontal Plane: Shoulder abduction

  11. Identify the plane of motion for #3 and give an example of an exercise or movement that takes place in each plane.

    Transverse plane: Trunk rotation

  12. Explain the route of blood flow beginning when it exits the heart and ending when it re-enters the heart through the inferior and superior vena cava.
    • * Blood leaves heart, carried by arteries.
    • * Arteries lead away from heart and branch out into smaller, microscopic vessels called arterioles.
    • * Arterioles develop "beds" of capillaries. 
    • * Blood passes from capillary beds to small venous vessels called venules.
    • * As venules lead back to the heart, they increase in size and become veins (eventually leading to the inferior and superior vena cava)

  13. Explain the route of blood flow beginning when it leaves the right ventricle of the heart and enters the left atrium.
    • * Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs through pulmonary arteries.
    • * In lungs, blood picks up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.
    • * Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium through pulmonary veins.

  14. Explain the concept of "form follows function" as it relates to the skeletal System and describe the importance of exercise in maintaining bone density throughout life.
    Wolff's law indicates the changes in bone structure coincide with changes in bone function. That is, when the skeleton is subjected to stressful forces, such as those that occur with exercise, it responds by laying down more bone tissue, thereby increasing the density. Conversely, when individuals experience prolonged periods of bed rest due to illness or injury, their bones lose mineral and become less dense.
  15. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (vertebral column)
    • 2. Extension
    • 3. Flexion
  16. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Meiolateral exis (shoulder joint)
    • 2. Flexion
    • 3. Extension
  17. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (elbow joint)
    • 2. Flexion
    • 3. Extension
  18. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (wrist joint)
    • 2. Extension
    • 3. Flexion
  19. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (knee joint)
    • 2. Flexion
    • 3. Extension
  20. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (hip joint)
    • 2. Extension
    • 3. Flexion
  21. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Mediolateral axis (ankle joint)
    • 2. Dorseflexion
    • 3. Plantarflexion
  22. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Anteroposterior axis (subtalar joint)
    • 2. Eversion
    • 3. Inversion
  23. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Anteroposterior axis (shoulder joint)
    • 2. Abduction
    • 3. Adduction
  24. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Lateral flexion (right)
    • 2. Lateral flexion (left)
    • 3. Anteroposterior axis (vertebral column)
  25. Label the segmental movements in this illustration, we well as the axis around which those movements take place.

    • 1. Anteroposterior axis (hip joint)
    • 2. Abduction
    • 3. Adduction
  26. What type of movement is occurring when you decrease the angle between two bones in the sagittal plane?
    Flexion
  27. What type of movement is occurring when pointing the toes in the sagittal plane?
    Plantarflexion

  28. What type of movement is occurring when moving the scapulae to a superior position in the frontal plane?
    Elevation

  29. What type of movement is occurring when lifting the lateral border of the foot in the frontal plane?
    Eversion

  30. What type of movement is occurring when rotating the hand and wrist laterally from the elbow in the transverse plane?
    Supination

  31. What type of movement is occurring when you do a multiplanar combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction in sequence?
    Circumduction

  32. Define Autogenic Inhibition
    An automatic reflex relaxation caused by stimulation of a Golgi tendon organ (GTO).
  33. Explain how fitness professionals can take advantage of Autogenic Inhibition during a stretching routine.
    This can be advantageous during a static stretching routine, in that after 7 to 10 seconds of a low-force stretch, a Golgi tendon organ (GTO) response is activated, allowing further muscle stretching.
  34. Define Reciprocal Inhibition
    Reciprocal inhibition is a reflex inhibition of the motor neurons of antagonists when the agonists are contracted.
  35. Explain how fitness professionals can take advantage of Reciprocal Inhibition during a stretching routine.
    This can be advantageous during a dynamic stretching routine, in that low-grade muscle contractions of the antagonist muscle can reduce tonicity in the agonist muscle to more easily be stretched.
  36. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Speed of contraction
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • Low               Medium            High
  37. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Force Capacity
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • Low               Medium            High
  38. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Fatigue resistance
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • High              Medium            Low
  39. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Mitochondrial content
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • High              Medium            Low
  40. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Size
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • Low               Medium            High
  41. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Efficiency
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • High             Medium             Low
  42. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Aerobic capacity
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • High             Medium             Low
  43. Use the relative terms "low" and "high" to compare and contrast the three muscle-fiber types. Anaerobic capacity
    • Type I          Type IIa          Type IIx
    • Low               Medium            High
  44. What is the missing label for #1 and list two exercises that will effectively target all three muscles.

    Upper trapezius

    Exercises: Upright rows, shoulder shrugs
  45. What is the missing label for #2 and list two exercises that will effectively target all three muscles.

    Middle trapezius

    Exercises: Upright rows, shoulder shrugs
  46. What is the missing label for #3 and list two exercises that will effectively target all three muscles.

    Lower trapezius

    Exercises: Upright rows, shoulder shrugs
  47. What is the missing label for #1 and list this muscle's primary functions. List three exercises that effectively target this muscle.

    1. Serratus anterior

    Functions: Stablization, abduction and upward rotation of the scapula.

    Exercises: Push-ups, incline bench press and pull-overs.
  48. What are the missing labels to this figure? 

    • 1. Supscapularis
    • 2. Supraspinatus
    • 3. Infraspinatus
    • 4. Teres minor
  49. What is the common name for this group of muscles? 

    Rotator cuff

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