Ecology Chapter 2

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  1. Population
    All the individuals of a species that occupy a particular geographical area at a certain time
  2. Exponential growth
    Accelerating growth that produces a J-shaped curve when the population is graphed against time
  3. Limiting factors
    Factors that limit the growth, distribution, or amount of a population in an ecosystem (e.g. water, sunlight, nutrients, temperatures)
  4. Carrying capacity
    • The size of a population that can be supported indefinitely by the available resources and services of an ecosystem
    • All populations have a carrying capacity, but humans have not yet reached their limits
  5. Ecological niche
    The way in which an organism occupies a position in an ecosystem, including all the necessary biotic and abiotic factors
  6. Predator
    • An organism that kills and consumes other organisms (e.g. a Nile Crocodiles prey on wildebeests)
    • In the second trophic level or higher, obviously
  7. Prey
    An organism that is eaten as food by a predator (e.g. phytoplankton are the prey of zooplankton)
  8. Mutualism
    A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit from the relationship.  Bees and flowers have a mutualistic relationship, because the bees pollinate the flowers, and they also collect nectar to use for food.
  9. Parasite
    An organism whose niche is dependent on a close association with a larger host organism (e.g. the brainworm is a parasite which uses the white-tailed deer as a host)
  10. Competition
    When two or more organisms compete for the same resource in the same location at the same time (e.g. a herbivore and a plant-eating bird may be in competition with each other for the same plant)
  11. Sustainable use
    Use that does not lead to long term depletion of a resource or affect the diversity of the ecosystem from which the resource is obtained
  12. Doubling time
    The period of time that is required for a population to double in size

  13. Ecological footprint
    A measure of the impact of an individual or a population on the environment in terms of energy consumption, land use, and waste production
  14. Unsustainable
    A pattern of activity that leads to a decline in the function of an ecosystemindonesiandeforestation_news_featured
  15. Sustainability
    Use of Earth's resources, including land and water, at levels that can continue forever
  16. Ecosystem services
    The benefits experienced by organisms, including humans, that are provided by sustainable ecosystems
  17. Desertification
    The change of non-desert land into a desert, which may result from climate change or from unsustainable farming (e.g. clearcutting forests) or water usedry-cracked-earth
  18. Ecotourism
    A form of tourism that is sensitive to the health of an ecosystem and involves recreational activities provided by sustainable ecosystems494_1a33843bf_watch_butterflies
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Ecology Chapter 2
2015-09-29 02:51:17
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