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____ is a fuzzy coat on the outside of the plasma membrane, composed of carbohydrate moieties of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Glycocalyx rome in protecting a cell
cushions the plasma membrane protecting it from physical or chemical injury
glycocalyx role in immunity to infection
enables the immune system to recognize and selectively attack foreign organisms.
glycocalyx role in defense against cancer
changes in the glycocalyx of cancerous cells enables the immune system to recognize and destroy them
glycocalyx role in transplant compatibility
forms the basis for compatibility of blood transfusions, tissue grafts, and organ transplants
glycocalyx role in cell adhesion
binds cells together so tissues do not fall apart
glycocalxy role in fertilization and embryonic development
- -enables sperm to recognize/bind to egg
- -guides embryonic cells to their destination in the body
____ are extensions of plasma membrane specialized for absorption, and give 15-40% more absorptive surface than if cell surfaces were flat.
_____ filaments attach to the inside of the plasma membrane at the tip of microvillus, and anchor microvillus to protein mesh called a ______ ____
___ are hairlike processes about 7-10 micrometers long. They serve as sensory cells in the ear, retina, kidney, and some calcium gates of plasma membranes.
what is the basis for ciliary and flagella movement
axoneme, which consist of an array of thin protein cylinders called microtubules.
which celia can and can not move?
9+2 microtubules arrangements can move, and 9+0 can not
long whiplike tail, with a complex sheath of course fibers that stiffen the tail between the axoneme and plasma membrane.
____ are cytoplasma-filled extensions of the cell varying in shape from fine, filamentous to blunt fingerlike processes.
2 methods of moving substances through the membrane of a cell
- 1) active or passive
- 2) carrier-mediated
-method of moving substances through a membrane that requires no energy expenditure by a cell.
-Includes filtration, diffusion, and osmosis.
2 methods of moving substances through a membrane that requires APT to be consumed.
active transports and vesicular transports.
method of moving substances through a cell membrane using membrane protein as a transport
process which physical pressure forces fluids through a selectively permeable membrane
____ is the net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of constant, spontaneous motion.
5 factors the influence the rate of diffusion:
- 1)membrane permeability
- 2) steepness of concentration gradient
- 3) surface area of membrane
- 4) temperature
- 5) weight of molecules
how does membrane permeability influence diffusion rate
cells can adjust their permeability to substances by adding/removing channel proteins or by opening/closing gates.
how does temperature influence diffusion rates
the warmer the substance, the more rapidly it diffuses
_____ is the net flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other.
channels of transmembrane proteins specialized for the passage of water are claled
The pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity is called
when filtration of water down the concentration gradient reaches equalibrium
____ is when mechanical pressures applied to one side of the system can override osmotic pressure and drive water through the membrane against it's concentration gradient.
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